ground across situations and people -Life Scripts– Culturally shared expectation as to the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course. This cultural narrative drives autobiographical memories and prescribes the age norms for important events in an individual life. oLife scripts are prescriptive, not descriptive They prescribe what the sequence of important events “should” beoThey are not concerned with biological events, neither with personal experiences, but are ended down from older generations from stories and observation Study: Berntsen and Robin (2004)
Danish undergraduates are asked to imagine a “quite ordinary infant” and list the seven more important event that are likely to take place in that infant’s life (along with age estimation). Results: For many Western Countries, even though the age estimation may differ, the sequence is extremely similar. Conclusion: -The life Script does indeed help in predicting the age at which particular events are expected to occur (such as school, falling in love, leaving home…etc.) -Life scripts are likely to influence encoding and retention by endowing event that match it. Thus, life scripts are more readily remembered. Levels of Processing Remember…-If the items to be remembered are unrelated, primary memory will be able to only retain 4-5 of them. oTry to remember: The energetic brown turtle ran on the lazy green dog oIt has been argued that we need to focus on the processof remembering, and not on the structure, since it would be way too hard. -Levels of Processing– A continuum that ranges from registering an event purely in terms of its physical characteristics to analyzing it in terms of its relation to other things that you know. I.e. Consider the word TRAIN. A shallow way to process it is to observe the capital letters. This deals only with the physical characteristics. However, you can process it in terms of its meaning. The more meaning you extract from an event, the more deeply you are processing it, and the more we would have comprehended it.
Elaboration and Distinctiveness -Elaboration– “extra processing”… Adding or enriching information by relating it to other information -Distinctiveness– The precision with which an item is encoded oThe more distinct and object, the better remembered Study: Stein et al (1982) Compared the elaborations produced by two groups of students, one academically successful and the other less so. In one experiment, the students were given short statements on the model of “The Hungry Man Got into his car” (the fact that the man is hungry Is not related to the fact that he got into his car) and wrote continuations for them. Results: -The elaboration made by less successful students were not that much related with the sentence given (“The hungry man got into his car and drove away”) -More successful students tended to be more specific: “The hungry man got into his car and went to the restaurant”oSuccesfull students were also able to recall more statements