Thinking, Reasoning, Sleep & Dreams.doc

L ecture e xercise a nswer k ey truefalse 1 in

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_____________________________________________________________________________ L ECTURE E XERCISE A NSWER K EY True/False 1. 0 In deductive reasoning, we make specific applications based on general conclusions. Drawing general conclusions from specific instances is called inductive reasoning. 2. + 3. + 4. + Some psychologists think divergent thinking contributes to creativity. 5. 0 It is difficult to create a good intelligence test because of the need to consider the influences of culture and ethnic background, the possibility of multiple forms of intelligence, and to validate the test and ensure its reliability and standardization. 6. 0 Scores from IQ tests are good predictors of school performance. 7. 0 REM sleep occurs during Stage 1 sleep. Fill in the Blank 8. heuristic (Heuristics can sometimes be misleading, however.) 9. inductive thinking 10. mental set 11. trial-and-error (and it will take Monica a long time!) 12. Freudian dream analysis (also the psychoanalytic theory of dreaming) 13. prototype 14. mental image 15. cognitive (mental housekeeping) 16. 4 5
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Short Answer 17. The linguistic relatively hypothesis illustrates how language can shape thinking, because it describes how different language systems emphasize or neglect specific concepts. The Eskimos, for example, live and work in the snow every day. Having several words that finely discriminate wet, icy snow from hard-packed snow is useful to them in making decisions of whether to travel, hunt, or build that day. But this broadened vocabulary also shapes their perceptions of the snow: they think about snow differently, in other words, because of their language system. 18. Language has a number of benefits for human thought. These include the ways that language fosters temporal thinking (the capacity to easily consider past and future events as well as the present), enables abstract thought (about concepts like love and justice), enhances intellectual flexibility (through the use of language categories and concepts), and enables the communication of thought to others. But language terms and structure can also channel human thought in ways that limit as well as broaden our ways of thinking of ourselves and the world around us, such as the use of two gender categories and terms that make us think of our minds as like computers. Language also includes vocabulary that can be used to denigrate other people. Matching 19. d (insight) 20. g (concept) 21. e (algorithm) 22. i (cognitive schema) 23. c (confirmation bias) 24. a (creativity) 25. b (mental set) 26. f (convergent thought) 27. h (proposition) 28. k (activation synthesis) 6
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  • Spring '08
  • Fuller,Charles/Goldberg,Jack
  • REM Sleep

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