O anal stage 1 3 years anal gratification toilet

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o Anal Stage: (1-3 years) Anal gratification, toilet-training. Control of pooping: retaining or excreting feces. If you weren’t trained on the potty properly you can develop Anal-expulsive disorderly: means that you’re messy and have a lack of commitment. If you have anal-retentive it means that your parents made you go at exact time which led to obsessive tendencies, ordering things/controlling. o Phallic Stage: (3-5 years) Sexus curiosity. Realize that there is a difference between boys and girls. Oedipus/ Electra complexes: attraction to opposite parents, masturbation. Attention seeking, promiscuity. o Latency Stage: (6-puberty): period of calm interest in non-sexual things. - Fixation is blocked libidinal energy. Freud says that sex drives everything you want to do. - The Oedipus complex is part of the phallic stage where a boy sees his father as a rival for him mother’s affection. - Electra complex = penis envy - Erogenous zones- part of the skin or mucous membrane that is extremely sensitive to stimulation. Pros Cons - First theory to emphasize the importance of childhood in personality development - Provided a therapeutic approach to help those with psychological problems - Overemphasis on sex, particular sex from the male perspective - Clinical data that is flawed - Impossible to test the theory experimentally. Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) discovered that pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus will, over time, result in a conditioned response. - Pavlov was initially interested in saliva and digestion. When food was presented the dog salivated quickly. Over repeated tested the dog salivated before the dog was presented food. Once the dog realized food was on the way whether it be from a metronome or footsteps they would elicit a salivary response. - Sounds, sight or smell can elicit a response. - Classical conditioning can be used therapeutically to help extinguish an unwanted fetish o For example, if every time the client gets aroused by the unwanted fetish, he is made to smell ammonia salt capsules (which will make him nauseous), the fetish will be associated with nausea instead of pleasure. Operant Conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) - Operant conditioning is a process by which an individual provides the desired behaviour. - Skinner says that free will is non-existent. You can follow what we do by our patterns of rewards.
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- Positive Reinforcement : an individual will be more likely to repeat a behaviour when she or he is rewarded in some way. - Negative Reinforcement : an individual will be less likely to repeat a behaviour when she or he is punished in some way. - Primary reinforcers : sex and food are powerful because they have built in rewards. Evolutionary Psychology - Bridging natural and social sciences - Modern adaptation/behaviours= natural/sexual selection - Choice= Advanced Species - Charles Darwin was the first evolutionary psychologist. The law of natural selection. The more successful maters will be the ones to pass on their genes.
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