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21. What are the categories of critical-to-quality characteristics?1.Performance: A product’s primary operating characteristics. Using an automobile as an example, characteristics would include such things as acceleration, braking distance, steering, and handling.2.Features: The “bells and whistles” of a product. A car may have power options, a tape or CD deck, antilock brakes, and power seats.3.Reliability: The probability of a product’s surviving over a specified period of time under stated conditions of use. A car’s ability to start on cold days and frequency of failures are reliability factors.4.Conformance: The degree to which physical and performance characteristics of a product match pre-established standards. A car’s fit and finish and freedom from noises and squeaks can reflect this dimension.5.Durability: The amount of use one gets from a product before it physically deteriorates or until replacement is preferable. For a car it might include corrosion resistance and the long wear of upholstery fabric.6.Serviceability: The speed, courtesy, and competence of repair work. An automobile owner might be concerned with access to spare parts, the number of miles between major maintenance services, and the expense of service.7.Aesthetics: How a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells. A car’s color, instrument panel design, control placement, and “feel of the road,” for example, may make it aesthetically pleasing.In addition, Kano developed the following concepts that may be appliedto CTQ characteristics:1.Dissatisfiers: Requirements that are expected in a product or service. In an auto-mobile,a radio, heater, and required safety features are examples, which are generally not statedby customers but assumed as given. If these features are not present, the customer is dissatisfied.2.Satisfiers: Requirements that customers say they want. Many car buyers want a sunroof, power windows, or antilock brakes. Although these requirements are generally not expected, fulfilling them creates satisfaction.3.Exciters/delighters: New or innovative features that customers do not expect. The presence of unexpected features, such as a weather channel button on the radio or separate rear-seat audio controls that allow children to listen to different music than their parents, leads to high perceptions of quality.
Chapter 3 – Project Organization, Selection, and Definition12