1042 Mindlessness Mindfulness mindlessness Openness to alternative

1042 mindlessness mindfulness mindlessness openness

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10.4.2 – Mindlessness Mindfulness-mindlessness: Openness to alternative possibilities vs. the tendency to act as if a situation has only one possible interpretation. o Once you have mindfully created a new way of doing something, then that approach may subsequently be engaged in mindlessly. To prevent mindlessness: encourage people to think about things in a tentative rather than in an absolute way. o By describing objects unconditionally (this is a dog’s chew toy), participants were less mindful. o By describing objects conditionally (this could be a dog’s chew toy), participants were more mindful they were able to see that the toy could also be used as an eraser. 10.5 – Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Problem-Solving Artificial intelligence (AI): Computer programs that solve problems in ways similar to the intelligent ways in which humans solve problems. Heuristic: A useful problem-solving procedure that may not always guarantee a solution. Polya wrote a problem-solving book: How to solve it. o The book is about heuristic problem-solving methods. Includes rules of thumb/shortcuts that allow you to arrive at a solution efficiently. o Polya’s method: 1) Understand the problem 2) Devise a plan 3) Carry out the plan 4) Examine the solution obtained and see if it can be used for other problems. Polya’s approach is similar to AI techniques because they are clear, precise, and explicit methods. AI researchers use algorithms (unambiguous solution procedures). o There are 2 classes of algorithms: 1) systematic: guaranteed to find a solution 2) non-systematic: not guaranteed (like Polya’s heuristic methods). 10.5.1 – A Simple Example of AI Computer programs that play games like chess and scrabble are good examples of AI systems. The program needs a data structure and an evaluation function: o Data structure = ‘understanding the problem’ A representation of the possible states of each position. o Evaluation function : does all the things that Polya refers to as creating a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the plan. Works out the possible moves and evaluates those moves.
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10.5.2 – The Problem Space For simple games, the computer uses a systematic algorithm: it calculates the best move out of all possible moves. Problem Space : The way a problem is represented, including the goal to be reached and the various ways of transforming the given situation into the solution. Complex games like chess have very complicated problem spaces. o The problem space can’t simply be analyzed only one move ahead. Search trees: A representation of all the possible moves branching out from the initial state of the problem. o The search tree for a game like chess is enormous.
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  • Spring '09
  • SHAHINZANGENEHPOUR
  • Consciousness, insight problems

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