Symptoms muscle weakness lethargy seizures coma

Info icon This preview shows pages 2–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
symptoms; muscle weakness, lethargy, seizures, coma, respiratory depression; Treatment: Administration of NaCl 2. Explain the clinical utility of the osmolality test, as well as specimen and method used for analysis. Clinical utlitity: hypoosmolality and hypernatremia usually occur only in patients w/ impaired renal excretion of water; although hypernatremia rarely occurs in ppl w/ normal thirst mechanisms and access to water, it becomes a concern in infants, unconscious patients, elderly w/ illness and diminished mental status, or anyone who cannot drink/ask for water Specimen: serum or urine Method: freezing point depression – inc. osmol – dc. Freezing point RR: serum – 275-295 mOsm/kg Random Urine – 300-900 mOsm/kg 3. Calculate anion gap when given a set of electrolyte results and explain its clinical utility. Formula: AG = (Na + K) – (Cl + CO2) Reference Range: 10-20 mmol/L Example: Na 145, K 5.8, Cl 87, CO2 8 (145 + 5.8) – (87 + 8) An elevated anion gap may be caused by uremia/renal failure, which leads to PO 4 - and SO 4 2- retention; ketoacidosis, as seen in cases of starvation of diabetes, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol poisoning, or salicylate; lactic acidosis; hypernatremia; and instrument error A low anion gap is rare but may be seen w/ hypoalbuminemia (decrease in unmeasured anions) or severe hypercalcemia (increase in unmeasured cations)
Image of page 2

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4. For the following electrolytes: Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, HCO3-, Magnesium, Calcium, Phosphorous, Lactate: List each as extracellular or intracellular. List test interferences discussed in lecture. Explain conditions that can cause elevated or decreased levels List adult reference ranges List the method/analytical technique used. Sodium (Na+)--- Extracellular Cation; Functions: Intake of H2O in response to thirst; Volume/osmolality; RR: 135-145 mmol/L---Low critical=120---high critical = 155/160; elevated levels--- decreased water intake, profuse sweating, prolonged diarrhea, diabetes insipidus; decreased levels--- K+ deficiency, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, renal failure, excess water intake; Sodium measurement----Serum, Plasma, Urine; Method: ISE – Ion Selective Electrode (Direct: Undiluted, Indirect: Diluted, Issues – protein buildup) Potassium (K+)--- Intracellular Cation; decreased levels----vomiting, diarrhea, nephritis, decreased intake; elevated levels--- renal failure, increased intake, sample hemolysis, leukemia, muscle/cellular injury; Functions: neuromuscular excitability, heart contraction, volume regulation; RR: 3.4 – 5.0 mmol/L; Measurement: ISE; Serum, plasma, urine; AVOID HEMOLYSIS!!
Image of page 3
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern