E) The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local American Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California; these provided opportunities for social mobility among soldiers and led to new cultural blending.II.The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests. A) The United States government forged diplomatic initiatives aimed at dealing with the continued British and Spanish presence in North America, as U.S. settlers migrated beyond theAppalachians and sought free navigation of the Mississippi River. B) War between France and Britain resulting from the French Revolution presented challenges to the United States over issues of free trade and foreign policy and fostered political disagreement. C) George Washington’s Farewell Address encouraged national unity, as he cautioned against political factions and warned about the danger of permanent foreign alliances.
Key Concept 4.1: The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and change their society and institutions to match them. I.The nation’s transition to a more participatory democracy was achieved by expanding suffrage from a systembased on property ownership to one based on voting by all adult white men, and it was accompanied by the growth of political parties. A) In the early 1800s, national political parties continued to debate issues such as the tariff, powers of the federal government, and relations with European powers.B) Supreme Court decisions established the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution and asserted that federal laws took precedence over state laws. C) By the 1820s and 1830s, new political parties arose — the Democrats, led, by Andrew Jackson, and the Whigs, led by Henry Clay — that disagreed about the role and powers of the federal government and issues such as the national bank, tariffs, and federally funded internal improvements. D) Regional interests often trumped national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on slavery and economic policy. II.While Americans embraced a new national culture, various groups developed distinctive cultures of their own. A) The rise of democratic and individualistic beliefs, a response to rationalism, and changes to society caused by the market revolution, along with greater social and geographical mobility, contributed to a Second Great Awakening among Protestants that influenced moral and social reforms and inspired utopian and other religious movements. B) A new national culture emerged that combined American elements, European influences, and regional cultural sensibilities.
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- Winter '14
- Thirteen Colonies, Native Americans in the United States, key concept