due to Germany's resumption of submarine warfare against merchant ships trading with France and Britain. The speech made by Wilson took many domestic progressive ideas and translated them into foreign policy ( free trade , open agreements , democracy and self-determination ). The Fourteen Points speech was the only explicit statement of war aims by any of the nation’s fighting in World War I. 14. Great Migration The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million blacks out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast , Midwest , and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970. Blacks moved from 14 states of the South, especially Alabama , Mississippi , Louisiana , and Texas , to the other three cultural (and census-designated) regions of the United States. Georgia was especially affected, seeing net declines in its black population for three consecutive decades after 1920. 15. Chicago Defender The Chicago Defender is a Chicago -based weekly newspaper founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott for primarily African-American readers. Historically, The Defender is considered the "most important" paper of what was then known as the colored or negro press. Abbott's newspaper reported and campaigned against Jim Crow era violence and urged blacks in the American South to come north in what became the Great Migration . Under his nephew and chosen successor, John H. Sengstacke , the paper took on segregation , especially in the U.S. military, during World War II . 16. Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties , was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes ) caused the phenomenon.
17. Reconstruction Finance Corporation The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was a government corporation in the United States that operated between 1932 and 1957 which provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses. Its aim was to boost the country’s confidence and help banks return to performing daily functions after the start of the Great Depression . It continued to operate through the New Deal where it became more prominent and through World War II . It was disbanded in 1957 when the US government felt it no longer needed to stimulate lending. 18. Bonus Army The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. 19. Alfred E. Smith American statesman who was elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928 . He was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall machine that controlled New York City's politics; was a strong opponent of Prohibition , which he did not think could be enforced, and was the first Catholic nominee for President. His candidacy brought
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