process of implementing the laws passed by Parliament Composed of 10 MPs and 5 senators and is co-chaired by a government member and an opposition member
oThe Standing Committee on National Finance Reviewing the annual main estimates oStanding Committee on Human Rights Mandated to ensure the federal legislation conforms to the Charter and to the international human rights instruments that Canada has signed since 1945 produce high quality reports which often exert a long-term influence on public policy Senate reflects the fundamental ambiguity in the institutional structure of the Canadian federal state Was designed to fulfill both the legislative role and the federal role Senate Reform: What is it all about? -The Senate as an institution of Federal System oInstitution of Interstate federalism -The Senate as a Second Chamber oReforming the Senate for regional representation vs. Second Chamber Senate Reform: Proposals -Triple E: Equal, Elected, Effective oWould no longer be a rubber stamp to the House of Commons oEach province would be equal in numbers -Abolition oRequires a constitution amendment oWas proposed and advocated for by the NDP Stephen Harper’s Proposal:-Stipulations:o8 (since changed to 9) year terms (non renewable):The Senate committee that has review this is not appose oConsultative ElectionsThe Prime Minister appoints after consultative electionElections in the provinces and the people that win would be appointed by the PM to fill vacancies in the House of Commons Problems: -Section 42 and Section 38:oSection 38:In order to change method of selecting Senators but use the seven fifty rule, whichstates that, unless otherwise specified, amendments to the Canadian Constitution must be ratified by resolutions of both houses of the federal Parliament and the legislatures of at least two-thirds of the provinces together containing at least 50% of the population •The section 38 rule is known as the seven-fifty rule the federal government is the only government with veto power •Changing the rules of how to change the Constitution requires the agreement of all Canada’s constitutionally recognized governments
oSection 42:Implies that other aspects of the Supreme Court cannot be changed without resort to one of the amending formulas, it can be argued that the court now enjoys entrenched status -Quebec Senatorial Districts oUnlike other Canadian provinces, it is divided into Senatorial regions (24) based on the 1859 electoral districts before ConfederationTOPIC #6: THE POLITICAL EXECUTIVE – The P.M., Cabinet and Central AgenciesThe Political Executive: -includes those MPs from the governing party and one or more senators who sit in Cabinet at the pleasure of the PM-the PM is the leader of the Cabinet and, given the powers exercised by the PMO, is much more than simply the “first among equals -Cabinet exercises the formal executive powers of the Crown, and performs the following key government functions: o
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Westminster system, cabinet ministers, Cabinet of Canada