Stretch receptors activated sufficiently Detrusor muscle contraction of occurs

Stretch receptors activated sufficiently detrusor

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Stretch receptors activated sufficientlyDetrusor muscle contraction of occursInternal sphincter may open(upon strong contraction)Stretch receptor activity inhibits neuronsprojecting to both sphinctersCouples with contracting detrusormuscle (bladder empties)
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Micturition29A spinal reflex regulates micturitionCan be overridden by trainedindividualPurely reflexive in infants
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Kidney Stones (renal lithiasis)30Common affliction in western culturemales 4X more oftenMinerals become concentrated in the kidneysprecipitate out of solution, form crystalscrystals attach to renal epitheliumenlarge, usually < 1 cmdislodge and enter ureterCalcium oxalatemost common substanceuric acid, cysteine, struvite also involvedFluid intake and diet can befactorshigh protein, low fiber may cause themhigh vitamin C and DMagnesium and citrate, increased fluid intakemay help prevent kidney stone formation
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Ch 19 – Fluid and Electrolyte Balance31Materials that are exchanged affect plasma content
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Water Balance32Body WaterIntake + metabolically produced = output + any used in chemical rxns.Water Intake/Productiondigestive tractcellular metabolismWater Exiting the Bodyinsensible loss(respiration, skin)sweatingfecesurineOnly the kidneys regulate the rate of water loss for the purpose ofmaintaining water balance.
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Water Reabsorption – Proximal Tubule33Na+is the primary solute in the ECFMost of the filtered Na+is reabsorbed in theproximal tubuleNa+produces the osmotic gradientdriving water reabsorptionalways actively transportedacross the basolateral membraneinto the peritubular fluiddiffuses into plasma of capillariesOther solutesalso contribute to the gradientwater flows with the solutes
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Water BalanceMedullary Osmotic Gradient34Loop of HenleDescending and Ascending limbs differing propertiesWater reabsorption from thecollecting ductviaaquaporinsvasopressin (ADH) influences quantity of aquaporins in membranes
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Medullary Osmotic GradientThe Countercurrent Multiplier35
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Medullary Osmotic GradientThe Countercurrent Multiplier36
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Medullary Osmotic GradientThe Countercurrent Multiplier37
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Medullary Osmotic GradientThe Countercurrent Multiplier38
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Medullary Osmotic GradientThe Countercurrent Multiplier39
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Water Reabsorption – ADH and Aquaporins40Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH) controls quantity ofaquaporins indistal tubuleandcollecting ducts(apical membrane)
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Medullary Osmotic Gradient – Urea’s Role41Additional solute is required tomaintain the established gradient fromthe countercurrent multiplierUrea (waste product) from the liveracts as a soluteUrea40% of solutes in glomerular filtrateMembrane transporters (UTA, B, C)Highly SolubleUtilized to prevent massive water lossTransport out of collecting duct for use40% of osmolarity of medullary osmoticgradient
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Medullary Osmotic Gradient – The Vasa Recta42Vasa recta capillariessupply blood flow (nutrients)to the renal medulla
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  • Fall '12
  • StaceyLeeJenkins
  • Physiology, Glomerulus, loop of Henle, Bowman's capsule, medullary osmotic gradient

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