However the study included an intention to treat and

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(Coleman, 2012). However, the study included an ‘intention to treat’ and excluded all the participants who did not adhere to the recommended treatment. This means that the results from the study may be biased. Next, a study was conducted to examine the effect of nicotine patch on smoking cessation. The primary objective of the study was to assess the effect of nicotine patch on cigarette cravings over the course of the day. More specifically, Saul and Stuart aimed to examine the efficacy of a
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9 21mg/24-h nicotine patch in reducing the cravings for smoking and compare it both to placebo and to a 15mg/16-h patch differing pharmacokinetic profile over a 24 hour period. Data from two similar randomized clinical trials among adult nicotine-dependent smokers were collected and analyzed. The first study compared the 21mg/24-h patch to a placebo patch while the second one was a comparison between the 21mg/24-h patch to the 15mg/16-h patch. Study 1 had 102 participants while the second one had 244 participants. All the participants in both studies were prompted via electronic diaries to rate their craving several times a day during a 1 week baseline period and for up to 2 weeks after smoking cessation (Shiffman and Ferguson, 2012). For analysis purposes, the day was divided into 5 different blocks: morning, midday, afternoon, evening, and late night. The individual craving rates were also divided into 3 intervals based on time after smoking cessation. Results from the analysis show that the 21mg/25-h patch was highly effective in reducing smoking cravings throughout the day including the evening hours. This is in line with findings from a study indicating that smoking relapses mostly were particularly likely in the evenings. The results were in comparison to both placebo and the 15mg/6-h nicotine patch used for the study 2. Results from study 2 also were also positive by time interval. In later time periods, the variation in smoking cravings between the 24-h and 16-h patches greatly reduced while remaining significantly different as general levels of cravings experienced by participants in the two groups dropped. Alluding to these findings, it is possible to conclude that nicotine patch may be the best smoking cessation strategy when compared to vaping (Shiffman and Ferguson, 2012). However, the study’s generalisability is brought to question as studies for cravings were limited and only monitored for the first two weeks after smoking cessation.
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10 The following study was aimed to examine to effectiveness of a free nicotine patch. The prospective study carried out in Saudi by Wajid et al in 2014. The researchers conducted the experiment in charity healthcare facility for smoking cessation and a total of 31 participants were selected. All the subjects were male smokers and their mean age was 31. The study required the participants to have been smoking for at least twelve years. The outcomes of the NRT were analyzed against a baseline and at six weeks after using the therapy.
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  • Fall '19
  • Smoking cessation

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