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4.Assume the speed of a nerve impulse is 100 m/s. How does this compare to the speed of electricity in a copper wire (approx. 3.00 108m/s)? The average speed of a nerve impulse is extremely slower than the speed of electricity in a copper wire.5.Compare the average Δ mV of the reflex without reinforcement to the average Δ mV of the reflex with reinforcement. Which is greater and why?The average Δ mV of the reflex with reinforcement was greater. This is because the nerves were already being engaged, and when this happens more signals travel to the brain and is prepared for more to come. Without the reinforcement, the nerves are not being activated thus causing a delay when they are stimulated.Figure 9
14A - 8Human Physiology with VernierExperiment 14AReflex – automatic response of a muscle to stimulusPatellar Reflex – patellar tendon just below the kneeTap the tendon just below the knee causes a contraction of quadriceps muscle and extension of the legReflex arc – consists of only two neurons – one sensory neuron and activate one motor neuronActivates sensory nerve impulses which travel to spinal cord and activate motor neurons which travel back to the muscle and cause muscle contraction3 Parts to Lab1.Voluntary Activationa.Listen to tap of hammer on table – respond to sound and kick legb.Collect 10 kicks and choose best 5 for data2.Involuntary – Patellar Reflexa.Measure direct response to reflex – expect to be slightly quicker than voluntaryb.Reflex – automatic response of a muscle to stimulusc.Patellar Reflex – patellar tendon just below the knee3.Reflex Reinforcementa.Measure reflex with reinforcement – expect to be enhanced compared to involuntaryb.Reflex maybe reinforced by voluntary contraction – “spill over” to cause slight activation of the leg musclec.Enhancement of patellar reflex