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Inability to concentrate8.Headaches9.Digestive issuesc.victim-survivor debate:i.victim:1.helplessnessii.survivor:1.afforded a sense of strength, dignity and control3.Explanatory Model of Rapea.Biosocial theoriesi.The desire to rape in humans results from a higher evolutionary reproductive success, and is a function of hyperactive male sexual desireii.Male are more likely if have restricted access to willing female partneriii.Limitation:1.Assume relatively uniform rate of rape across all societies2.Bonobo DOES NOT rape, they promote female dominance
b.Individual difference models (Psychosexual)i.Perpetrator identities/what distinguish rapists from non-rapists1.Lower socioeconomic status2.Less edu3.Insecure attachment style4.Experienced abuse 5.More exposure to porn and violent media at young age6.Many sexual partners and frequent coitus7.Focus on orgasm8.Prefer hooking up9.Positive response to sex aggressive porn10. Hate female ii.Empathy：1.Counter act risk factors2.Males are able to put themselves into victims situation, therefore less likely to commit sexual agressioniii.4 stages that culminate in a rape (Malamuth Model)1. Motivation:a.Willingness to have sex by all meansb.Self-prove, show masculinity c.Prove powerlessness of victim, desire to controld.Sexual aggression, paraphilia 2.Overcome internal inhibitors:a.Justify one’s own actions to one’s selfb.Belief in rape myths -> she wanted c.Sense of entitlement -> she owes me d.Retribution -> she deserves it e.Belief that “might is right”3.Overcome external inhibitions:a.Perceive social support, tolerance for actions b.Perceive actions as “private, personal, family issue”c.Social boundaries d.Male dominance structures: military, sports, celebritiese.Male group bonds: boys being boys4.Find opportunities/Select victimsa.Thinks females as inferior b.Defining desirable feminine traits: passivity, compliance c.Prefer female dependency/vulnerability: both financial and emotionald.Prefer small physical size: lack of physical strength orskill
c.Social learning modeli.Rape culture1.What it isa.A setting where rape is pervasive and normalized by social attitudes about gender and sexualityb.Victim blaming, slut shaming, sexual objectification，normalizing rape, denying rape…2. Why a.Overly strict gender rolesb.Rape mythsc.Sexual scripts d.Alcohol ii.Gender role dysfunction:1.Male developed idea that man are strong women are weak.2.Men are taught to separate sex from relationships, to be aggressiveiii.Rape myths (3 categories)1.Perceptions of female and male role2.She wanted it 3.She deserved it4.She exaggerated it, she made it upiv.Sexual scripts:1.Expected way of female are expected to act in sexual situationsa.Female are sexual gate keepers, not allowed to initiate b.Expected to resist sexual acts regardless of their own desirev.Alcohol: 52% perps, 42% victims1.Women use alcohol to signal sexual readiness2.Men feel more sexually aggressive while drinking3.Heightens the effects of dysfunctional gender roles4.