total distance total time Factoring You may need to apply these types of

Total distance total time factoring you may need to

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total distance total time Factoring You may need to apply these types of factoring: Probability Probability refers to the chance that a specific outcome can occur. When outcomes are equally likely, probability can be found by using the following definition: For example, if a jar contains 13 red marbles and 7 green marbles, the probability that a marble selected from the jar at random will be green is If a particular outcome can never occur, its probability is 0. If an outcome is certain to occur, its probability is 1. In general, if p is the probability that a specific outcome will occur, values of p fall in the range . Probability may be expressed as either a decimal, a fraction, or a ratio. Functions A function is a relation in which each element of the domain is paired with exactly one element of the range. On the SAT, unless otherwise specified, the domain of any function is assumed to be the set of all real numbers for which is a real number. For example, if , the domain of is all real numbers greater than or equal to . For this function, 14 is paired with 4, since . Note: the symbol represents the positive, or principal, square root. For example, , not ± 4. number of ways that a specific outcome can occur total number of possible outcomes
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SAT Preparation Booklet 16 MATHEMATICS REVIEW Exponents You should be familiar with the following rules for exponents on the SAT. For all values of : For all values of Also, . For example, . Note: For any nonzero number , it is true that . Sequences Two common types of sequences that appear on the SAT are arithmetic and geometric sequences. An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which successive terms differ by the same constant amount. For example: 3, 5, 7, 9, . . . is an arithmetic sequence. A geometric sequence is a sequence in which the ratio of successive terms is a constant. For example: 2, 4, 8, 16, . . . is a geometric sequence. A sequence may also be defined using previously defined terms. For example, the first term of a sequence is 2, and each successive term is 1 less than twice the preceding term. This sequence would be 2, 3, 5, 9, 17, . . . On the SAT, explicit rules are given for each sequence. For example, in the sequence above, you would not be expect- ed to know that the 6th term is 33 without being given the fact that each term is one less than twice the preceding term. For sequences on the SAT, the first term is never referred to as the zeroth term. Variation Direct Variation: The variable is directly proportional to the variable if there exists a nonzero constant such that . Inverse Variation: The variable is inversely proportional to the variable if there exists a nonzero constant such that Absolute Value The absolute value of is defined as the distance from to zero on the number line. The absolute value of is written as . For all real numbers : For example: GEOMETRIC CONCEPTS Figures that accompany problems are intended to provide information useful in solving the problems. They are drawn as accurately as possible EXCEPT when it is stated in a particular problem that the figure is not drawn to scale. In general, even when figures are not drawn to scale,
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