Figure 7 results of voltage follower with 1vpp square

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Figure 7: Results of voltage follower with 1Vpp square wave input signal The non-inverting op – amp was built as shown. VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 R1 1kΩ R2 1kΩ XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P Figure 8: Non-inverting op – amp built in MULTISIM Results for non-inverting op - amp are as shown:
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Operational amplifiers 9 Figure 9: Results of non-inverting op - amp with 1Vpp sinusoidal input signal The inverting op – amp was constructed as shown: VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 R1 1kΩ R2 1kΩ XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P Figure 10: Inverting operational amplifier built in MULTISIM software Upon simulation, the results obtained were as follows:
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Operational amplifiers 10 Figure 11: Simulation results of inverting op – amp with 1Vpp sinusoidal input The differentiator was constructed as shown: VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 R2 1kΩ XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P C1 0.2µF Figure 12: Differentiator circuit built in MULTISM software Upon simulation, the results obtained are as follows:
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Operational amplifiers 11 Figure 13: Simulation results of the differentiator circuit with 1Vpp sinusoidal input signal Figure 14: Results of differentiator op – amp with 1Vpp triangular waveform input signal
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Operational amplifiers 12 The integrator was constructed as shown: VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 R2 100kΩ XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P C2 0.2µF R1 1kΩ Figure 15: Integrator circuit built in MULTISIM software Upon simulation, the results obtained are as follows: Figure 16: Integrator waveforms with 1Vpp sinusoidal input signal
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Operational amplifiers 13 Figure 17: Simulation results of the integrator op – amp with 1Vpp square waveform input Digital to analog converter (DAC) circuit was constructed in MULTISIM as shown: VCC 10V VEE -10V R1 15kΩ R2 7.5kΩ R3 3.9kΩ R4 1.8kΩ R5 1kΩ V1 5 V XMM1 Figure 18: Digital to analog converter circuit built in MULTISIM software The results of DAC were summarized as shown:
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Operational amplifiers 14 Decimal Binary Output voltage 0 0000 -1.13mV 1 0001 -334.278mV 2 0010 -667.876mV 3 0011 -1.001V 4 0100 -1.283V 5 0101 -1.617V 6 0110 -1.95V 7 0111 -2.283V 8 1000 -2.779V 9 1001 -3.113V 10 1010 -3.446V Analysis and discussion The sinusoidal input voltage to the comparator had positive and negative values. The reference voltage (voltage at the inverting terminal) was at 0V since the terminal was grounded. The output of the comparator both 0.1vpp and 1vpp was a square waveform of 20Vpp. The out was 10V for the positive going cycle (HIGH) and -10V (LOW) for the negative going cycle of the sinusoidal waveforms. Grounding the non-inverting input and connecting sinusoidal input to inverting terminal had an effect of inverting the square waveform in the comparator’s output. The voltage follower had its output voltage equivalent to the input signal voltage. It is a circuit commonly used as an impedance matching device to couple high impedance circuit to low impedance circuits. The circuit has a HIGH (infinite) input impedance and an extremely low (almost zero) output impedance. The output of non-inverting op – amp was twice the input signal voltage. It is because the input resistance is equivalent to the output resistance. Its voltage gain is computed as shown: AV = 1 + RF RG = 1 + 1 1 = 2 To have a gain equal to 10, we need: AV = 1 + RF RG = 10 RF RG = 9 RF=9RG The output of the inverting op –amp was found to be equal to input voltage with 180 degrees phase shift. The gain of the amplifier used in the circuit was equal to:
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