G steps to find keys cultural influences strong oral

Info icon This preview shows pages 8–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Re-creating context helps e.g. steps to find keys Cultural influences – strong oral traditions make auditory information easier to retrieve Forgetting Unable to retrieve information stored in memory ‘tip of the tongue’ phenomenon – temporary inability to remember Ineffective encoding – not encoded efficiently, didn’t pay enough attention Decay – memory traces fade away over time. Complex and meaningless information decays faster Interference – competition from other material, interruptions Retrieval failure – lack of situational or similar cues Motivated forgetting – want/need to forget (emotional reasons, meaning ascribed, links to existing knowledge) Retrieval
Image of page 8

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Learning takes place if there is a long-lasting change in behaviour as a result of experience Not due to temporary changes e.g. illness, tiredness, stress Most behaviour is learned Associative learning – learning happens spontaneously/automatically when one event/stimulus is associated with another (classical conditioning and operant conditioning) Cognitive learning – learning that involves thinking Social learning – the way social behaviour is acquired Learning
Image of page 9
Classical conditioning occurs when a response usually elicited by one stimulus is then associated with a different stimulus that wouldn’t normally lead to that response Pavlov (Dog salivates when hearing a bell ring) Classical conditioning occurs when a response (salivating) usually elicited by one stimulus (smell or sight of food) is then associated with a different stimulus (bell ringing) that wouldn’t normally lead to that response (bell wouldn’t usually lead to a salivation response) Thus a new behaviour (response) has been learned e.g. salivating when you hear a bell ringing Classical Conditioning
Image of page 10

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (US) (not yet learned stimulus) A stimulus that causes a specific response before any learning has taken place e.g. dog food Unconditioned Response (UR) (not yet learned response) A response to US e.g. salivating ( salivation is automatic) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (learned stimulus) A stimulus that is initially neutral but through association (pairing) with the US it may produce a desired response when presented without the US e.g. bell Conditioned Response (CR) (learned response) A response that follows the CS e.g. salivating after bell rings (salivation is learned)
Image of page 11
Classical Conditioning Tom leaves the room every time he sees a cat because he is allergic to them Kate felt terrified when she got attacked on the bus. Now every time she sees a bus she feels terrified again. I feel happy when I smell my girlfriend’s perfume Cat Hair (US) Sneezing (UR) Cat (CS) Leave the room (CR) attacked (US) Terror (UR) Bus (CS) Terror (CR) Happy (CS) Perfume (CS) Happy (UR) My girlfriend (US)
Image of page 12

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Learning a conditioned response depends on reinforcement Reinforcement strengthens the likelihood of a response Classical conditioning reinforced when CS is followed
Image of page 13
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern