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After the 5min class pa probably the initially high

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after the 5min-Class-PA. Probably, the initially highon-task behaviour made it difficult to achieve asignificant increase in it. However, the results showan evident trend of slowing the decrease in on-taskbehaviour in the second part of the lesson for the8-10-year-old pupils and even a slight increase ofthe initially high on-task behaviour by almost 4%for the 6-8-year-old pupils.Separate analyses conducted for the pupilswho started the intervention after four weeks andthose who started it after eight weeks showed thaton-task behaviour during the entire academic lessonwas significantly different at different time pointsduring the 12-week observational period for the twoage groups. The results indicate there is a direct andpositive association between having PA systemati-cally implemented into the classrooms and on-taskbehaviour.The effects on participants are mainly charac-terized by on-task behaviour such as their improvedassignment completion, organization, planningand impulse control. Due to these positive effects,teachers in general strongly prefer the incorpora-tion of 5min-Class-PA. The practical effects of theexperiment allowed teachers to help their pupilscope with academic lessons, which was also favour-able to teachers. Hence, this study’s results alsoestablished that incorporating PA in the classroomcould be an aid to educators to fulfil their dutiesas teachers.Table 5. Control and intervention adjusted means and variability for the post-intervention outcomes with age, gender andpre-intervention results as a covariateBaseline period(M±SE)Intervention period(M±SE)FpTEE257.88±10.57281.79±11.852.249.137STEPS2717.51±109.552868.79±122.87.838.362PAD26.03±2.1526.21±2.42.003.957SEDENTARY177.46±3.28181.59±3.68.690.408MODERATE19.09±1.4819.09±1.664.000.999VIGOROUS6.79±1.057.224±1.18.074.786METs2.32±0.082.392±0.09.423.517Note. M=mean, SE=standard error. TEEtotal daily energy expenditure, expressed as kilocalories (kcal); STEPSdaily steps count;PADtotal daily physical activity duration, described as PA requiring more than 4 METs; SEDENTARYtime spent in PA requiringless than 4 METs is classified as sedentary physical activity; MODERATEtime spent in PA requiring 4-5.9 METs is classified asmoderate physical activity; VIGOROUStime spent in PA requiring ≥6 METs is classified as vigorous physical activity; PA intensityis described as metabolic equivalents (METs).
Kinesiology 50(2018)2:251-259Podnar, H. et al.: EFFECTS OF A 5-MINUTE CLASSROOM-BASED PHYSICAL...258The results imply that the integration of theclassroom-based PA can improve pupil’s cognitivefunctioning. Blair and Diamond(2008) assert thatcognitive and behavioural school readiness dependslargely on the development of children’s executiveregulatory systems during the preschool period.Additionally, cognitive capacities such as the abilityto sustain attention and monitor one’s thoughts alsoare defining features of self-regulation. In the earlychildhood classroom, the need for self-regulation isgreatest when there is a pause in structured, teacher-directed activities (Cassidy, Buell, Pugh-Hoese, &

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Term
Winter
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Educational years, Second grade, Wit,

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