• The conditioning requires that a neutral stimulus be paired with a UCS. • A stimulus is “neutral” because when it is sensed the UCR is NOT elicited.
Neutral Stimulus • The label for a neutral stimulus is NS. • If every time a UCS is sensed and a Neutral Stimulus ALSO is sensed, after repeated pairings, the NS will acquire eliciting powers and can cause the involuntary response when presented by ITSELF.
Conditioned Stimulus FOOD SALIVATION UCD UCR UCS & NS paired NS No reflex elicited TONE Because the NS is repeatedly paired with UCS, the NS is transformed into a CS CS CR When presented alone, the CS TONE SALIVATION produces a CR CS is the “Conditioned Stimulus” In this example the CS is the TONE In this example the CR is salivation, and the NS and CS are physically the same stimulus.
Process of Classical Conditioning Food (UCS) Salivation (UCR) Tone (NS) No salivation Tone + Food Salivation Tone (CS) Salivation (CR)
In-Class Example • A CR is physically the same response as the UCR. • Physically, the CR is… • Example: If I play a sound does your eye blink? • No. So the sound is an NS because it is neutral with respect to blinking. Every time I puff air into your eye what happens? You blink. If I also made the sound each time I puffed air into your eye, eventually the sound alone will cause you to blink! • Diagram this example like we did Pavlov’s dog.
Case Study Each time a rabbit’s cheek is given a mild electrical shock, the muscles in the cheek twitch. During the ACQUISITION phase, a red light is turned on when the electrical shock is delivered. This is repeated 10 times. On the eleventh trial, the light is turned on but no shock is delivered. The rabbit’s cheek twitched when the light came on. 1. What was the involuntary response in example? Label the behavior the CR & UCR 2. What originally caused/elicited the involuntary response in the example? Label this as the UCS 3. What event is now ALSO eliciting the involuntary response? Label it as the NS/CS
After a big fraternity party, Andrew slept in his buddy’s room. He awoke dry-heaving as a result of a hangover. When he could finally open his eyes (still barfing-up bile) he noticed wall posters of John Denver on the ceiling and walls. Now, whenever he sees a picture of John Denver, he feels mildly ill. The pictures of John Denver are: A)Neutral StimulusB)Conditioned StimulusC)Both A and BD)Unconditioned Stimulus Answer C Multiple Choice PLACEHOLDER
Other Aspects of Classical Conditioning • Generalization: displaying the same CR to different antecedents • Discrimination: displaying a CR to some antecedents, but not to others that are similar.