Hyperbole – deliberate exaggeration for emphasis. e.g. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate:(Shakespeare, Sonnet 18)I would not marry her though she were endowed with all that Adam had left him before he transgressed. (Benedick, Act 2, sc.1, 237- 9)Iambic Pentameter – usual meter for a Shakespearean sonnet. Each line of poetry consists of five pairs of beats; one is stressed and the other unstressed.Metaphor – when you use one idea/ image to talk about another.e.g. But thy eternal summer shall not fade (Sonnet 18)Shakespeare is here using summer to reference the youth of the person that he is addressing.Simile – explicit comparison of one thing to another. A simile often uses “as” or “like”.e.g. Like as the waves towards the pebbled shore,So do our minutes hasten to their end;Sonnet - 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter-an abab / cdcd/ efef / gg rhyme scheme, divided into 3 quatrains and a rhyming
couplet-a “turn” (also known as a volta), often indicated by words like “But,” “Yet,” and “As yet.” The turn can usually be found around line 9, and/or in the final couplet. Quatrain - a 4-line verse. In some poems, quatrains are verses by themselves; in Shakespeare’s sonnets, the quatrain is 4 lines which are formed through the use of end-rhyme.e.g. When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyesI all alone beweep my outcast state,And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,And look upon myself, and curse my fate,(Sonnet 29)Eyes/ cries rhyme as do state and fate, thus creating the quatrain.Volta - The point in the sonnet where there is a change in thought/ feeling. In Shakespearean sonnet this is often at line 9, or final couplet.