Reaction observed 2H 2 O l CO 2 g H 2 CO 3 aq H 2 O l l pH observed was 839 a

Reaction observed 2h 2 o l co 2 g h 2 co 3 aq h 2 o l

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carbonic acid and contribute to the lowering of the pH with the aid of magnetic stirring. Reaction observed: 2H 2 O (l) + CO 2 (g) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) (l) pH observed was 8.39; a significant increase from the initial pH value of 6.01 of distilled water. The reaction that caused the rise in pH is the formation of the hydrogen bicarbonate ion due to the addition of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The ion responsible for this change in pH is HCO 3 - ion which is a weak base (also found in human body’s natural blood buffer system) . Formation of the weak base is the result of equilibrium attempting to adjust itself after an equilibrium shift resulted in adding sodium bicarbonate to the solution. Reaction observed: H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) + NaHCO 3 (aq) HCO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) + Na + (aq) (m) Addition of acid is to lower the pH of the solution (blood) at is significantly higher than in desired range of 7.35-7.45. Carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3 (aq) , is produced to lower the pH of the solution because hydrogen chloride, being a strong acid, dissociates completely and seeks to give off the hydrogen ion it possesses to bicarbonate. Reaction observed: HCO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) + HCl (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) + Cl - (aq) (n) Addition of acid to the solution of hydrogen bicarbonate caused the solution’s pH to be lowered to 7.49. This was observed due to the formation of carbonic acid. The pH of 7.49 is higher than the pH of distilled water but similar to the pH of blood. H 2 CO 3 (aq) , H 2 O (l) , HCO 3 - (aq) , and H 3 O + (aq) species are present in the solution. There is a higher abundance of HCO 3 - (aq) than H 2 CO 3 (aq) due to slightly basic pH of the solution, and HCO 3 - (aq) , by nature,
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being a weak base. Based on the theory, the higher concentration of hydrogen bicarbonate is preferable in order to efficiently balance and buffer the blood’s pH levels. (o) pH of the solution following the addition of lactic acid is 7.38. Lactic acidosis is stimulated by the production of lactic acid and buildup in blood, which has a significant impact on oxygen transport due to interruption with hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The hydrogen that comes of off lactic acid contributes to the formation of carbonic acid by combining with bicarbonate, making the pH of the solution more basic. Also, water and carbon dioxide are formed in the process to continue with the shifting and balancing of the solution’s equilibrium. Reaction observed: C 3 H 6 O 3 (aq) + HCO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) 2H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) (p) Increasing the rate of stirring from 5 to 8, increased the pH from 7.38 to 7.44. The observations of pH increase match the information given in the procedure. With vigorous stirring, as sampled at rate 8, the pH of the solution, as indicated previously, increased. Such is expected due to the process of rapid elimination (expiration) of carbon dioxide from the solution. Reaction observed: 2 H 2 O ( l ) + CO 2 (g) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O ( l ) HCO 3 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) (q) The pH of the solution increases to 7.61 when sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in the solution. The equilibrium concentrations are altered by the addition of sodium bicarbonate that dissociates into its sodium ion
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  • Fall '14
  • Pell, Wendy

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