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An example of a discriminative stimulus might be a ________________.A) stop signB) none of theseC) the white rat in Watson's Little Albert study of producing phobiasD) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioningA. Stop signWhich of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?A) Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?B) Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time.C) Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement.D) Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.D. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcementLearning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) iscalled _____________.A) the observational delay effectB) the innate performance preferenceC) the learning/performance distinctionD) the delayed learning paradigmC. The learning/performance distinctionA child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert.This type of learning is BEST explained by _______________.A) operant conditioningB) classical conditioningC) biofeedback theoryD) biofeedback theoryA. Operant conditioningWhile watching the evening news you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder "why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?" According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victim's staying in abusive relationships is _____________________.
A) conditioned emotional responseB) learned helplessnessC) observational learningD) instinctive driftB. Learned helplessnessWatson's experiment with Little Albert demonstrated that fears might be __________.A) based on the principle of observational learningB) based on Skinner's analysis of positive reinforcementC) deeply rooted in the innate unconscious of infantsD) based on classical conditioningD. Based on classical conditioningThere are two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of doing. If Inez blinks her eyes because a gnat flies close to them, that's _____________. But if she then swats at the gnat, that's _____________.A) instrumental; classicalB) involuntary; voluntaryC) voluntary; involuntaryD) operant; instrumentalB. Involuntary; voluntaryIn an experiment, two groups of dogs are given shocks to their feet. One group isable to escape the shocks by jumping over a barrier. The second group is harnessed and cannot escape. After several trials, both groups are put in situations where they CAN escape. The first group escapes the shocks but the second group just sits and whines, refusing to attempt to escape. The response of the second group is due to ______.A) learned helplessnessB) latent learningC) contingency blockingD) response generalizationA. Learned helplessnessHuman beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these