When applications are important, it is helpful to have several illustrations or
examples. It also is helpful if participants can provide additional examples or make
suggestions. The most important thing to remember is that meaningfulness of
material promotes and enhances learning.
Bloom et al. (1956) developed the cognitive domain for the Taxonomy of Educa-
tional Objectives, and this is still useful for establishing instructional goals. These
are hierarchical and provide a framework for sequencing and organizing material.
The cognitive domain has six levels that call for thinking to move from simple
Knowledge. The first level includes thinking activity focused on recall of
specifics, universals, methods, processes, patterns, facts, terminology, trends,
principles, and generalizations.
Be sure to define terms even if you believe that participants are
familiar with them. Be specific about principles, concepts, and so on that
are part of the presentation. Be cautious in making assumptions about what
participants already know.