malaise, fatigue, facial edema, hepatitis, angioedema), skin reaction Steven-Johnson Syndrom, toxic epidermal necrolysis, liver failure. Chapter 97: pg. 1183Anthelmintics (Helminths are parasite worms and anthelminths are drugs against them)A.Recognize the main therapies for helminthiasis. Also, identify when drug therapy is definitely indicated, as well as factors that may preclude drug therapy.Treatment for helminthiasis is not always indicated as most of the parasites (nematoda, cestode, trematoda) do not reproduce in the human body. In the absence of reinfestation, they simply subside and as adult worms die. Treatment is option. In countries where providers and medication is available, drug therapy is definitely indicated. But in less fortunate areas, preventive measures help by improving hygieneand elimination carriers. a.Mebendazole (Vermox): i.Used for intestinal roundworms (nematoda). It clears infestation with pinworms, hookworms, and giant roundwormsii.MOA: prevents uptake of glucose by susceptible worms and glucose deprivation results in slow death. b.Albendazole (Albenza):i.Used against many cestode (tapeworm), and nematode (roundworm) parasites including for larva of toenia solium and echinoccous granulosis.Albendazole is a drug of choice for infestation of hookworm, pinworm, whimpworms, giantround worm, pork roundworm, Chinese liver flukeii.MOA: inhibits polymerization of tubulin and prevents cytoplasmic microtubules and as a result uptake of glucose is prevented. iii.ADR: mild-moderate liver impairment, bone marrow suppression so it cancause agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, should not be used pregnant teratogenic. c.Pyrantel pammoate (Pin-X)i.Used against intestinal nematodes, pinworms and hookworms. Alternative to mebendazole, albendazole.ii.MOA: depolarizes neuromuscular blocking agent that causes spastic paralysis of intestinal parasites that are cleared in feces.iii.ADV: GI; n/v, diarrhea, stomach pain, dizziness, drowsinessd.Ivermectin (Stromectol) :i.Used against many nematodes; ochocerciasis, intestinal strongyloidias, also used to mites and lice.