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the cardiac cells? Lecture 14 (slides 8-13) and lecture 16 (slides 1-8) and lecture 17 (slides 1-13) are all related to the excitation-contraction coupling of contractile cells of the heart. This is the primary cell type in the heart, found both in the atria and ventricles, and its depolarization produces a calcium-mediated contraction. You should know if very good detail how depolarizing current from an “upstream cell”causes a coordinated opening of voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated
potassium channels, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Know when they open, what causes these channels to open, and how these channels contribute to the contraction of the cardiac contractile cells. How does plasma membrane depolarization lead to an increase in intracellular calcium in the cell? Understand the role of calcium in cardiac myocyte contraction. How do the autonomic nervous systems influence intracellular calcium signaling? What is the link between intracellular calcium and myocyte contraction? Know the different parts of the circulatory system and understand the overall purpose of circulatory systems in animals. Give the four components of the heart? Understand the flow characteristics into and out of the heart? Know the different heart valves and briefly describe their functions. What the two distinct cell types in the heart with regards to their electrical excitability (I covered part of the function of the contractile cells in lecture 14)? What regions of the heart show autorhythmicity? How are electrical currents propagated from the heart throughout the heart? What role does the atrioventricular node play? What would happen to heart function if the atrioventricular node stopped transmitted a current to the ventricle? Differentiate between autorhythmic and contractile tissues of the heart. What leads to autorhythmicity? How does depolarization in the heart differ from action potentials in a typical neuron? Make sure you know the different components of pacemaking activity and action potential activity in autorhythmic cells. Make sure you understand the ionic basis of the action potentials in contractile cells. What are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence heart rate?