All purpose flour less protein than bread flour

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and is best for pasta products. All-purpose flour: less protein than bread flour (averages about 11%). AP is a blend of hard and soft wheat flours that can be used for all purposes. Pastry flour: cream-colored flour derived from soft wheat with short to medium patents. Lower protein content of about 9% makes it ideal for pastries, some cookies, sweet yeast doughs, biscuits, and muffins Page 1 of 5
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Cake flour: Extra-short patent wheat with a lower protein content of only 8%, resulting in less gluten being formed which gives cakes a fine grain, delicate structure, and velvety texture. Treated with chlorine gas which lowers the pH from about 6.0 to 5.0 and improves baking quality Graham flour: Produced by combining finely ground endosperm and coarsely ground germ and bran Ancient Grain flour: Einkorn, emmer, kamut, and spelt can all be milled to yield their respective flours High-Gluten flour: Vital wheat gluten is added to AP or whole wheat flour to create high-gluten flour, yielding a chewy texture used for bagels, pizza crust, artisan breads, and loaves/rolls 5) What are the functions of each flour mixture ingredient below? • Flour: contributes texture and structure to baked ingredients, contributes gluten along with the presence of a liquid • Sugar: contributes sweetness and influences volume, moistness, tenderness, color, appearance, and caloric content of baked products. Also helps to delay staling. • Salt: contributes flavoring, enhances firmness of dough, improves volume, texture, and evenness of cell structure, and prolongs shelf life. • Liquid: helps hydrate flour, gelatinize starch, allows gluten to be formed, acts as a solvent for dry ingredients, activates yeast, provides steam for leavening, and allows baking powder or soda to react and produce CO2 • Fat: acts as a tenderizer and adds volume, structure, flakiness, flavor, color, and helps resist staling. Also plays a role in heat transfer. • Eggs: helps enhance structural integrity, contributes to leavening, color, flavor, and/or nutrient content. Page 2 of 5
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6) Describe the 3 types of leavening agents and how they work (i.e., what makes the product rise?) Physical leaveners: air and steam. Air is incorporated into almost all flour mixtures during mixing, creaming, sifting, etc. Water incorporated into flour mixtures produces steam when heated, expanding to 1600x its original volume.
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich
  • Flour, Graham flour

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