o Most people with mood disorders have some form of depressive disorder

O most people with mood disorders have some form of

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oMost people with mood disorders have some form of depressive disorder—dysthymiaor major depression. Such individuals experience arange of affective, cognitive, motivational, and biological symptomsincluding persistent sadness, negative thoughtsabout the self and the future,lack of energy or initiative, too much or too little sleep, and gaining or losing weight.-7.3 What are the causal factorsin unipolar mood disorders?oAmong biologicalcausal factorsfor depressive disorder, there is evidence of a moderate geneticcontribution to the vulnerability for major depression and probably dysthymia as well. Moreover, major depressions are clearly associated with multiple interacting disturbances in neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and neurophysiological systems. Disruptions in circadian and seasonal rhythmsare also prominent features of depression.oAmong psychosocialtheoriesof the causes of depressive disorder are Beck’s cognitive theoryand the reformulated helplessness and hopelessness theories, which are formulated as diathesis-stress models, and a tendency to ruminateabout one’s mood or problems exacerbatestheir effects. The diathesisis cognitivein nature (e.g., dysfunctional beliefs and pessimistic attributional style, respectively), and stressfullifeevents are often important in determining when those diatheses actually lead to depression.oPersonality variablessuch as neuroticismmay also serve as diathesesfor depression.oPsychodynamic and interpersonaltheories of unipolar depressionemphasize the importance of early experiences(especially early lossesand the quality of the parent–child relationship) as setting up a predispositionfor depression.-7.4 What are bipolar disorders?
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oIn the bipolar disorders (cyclothymia and bipolar I and II disorders), the person experiences episodes of both depression and hypomaniaor mania. During manic or hypomanic episodes, the symptoms are essentially the opposite of those experienced during a depressive ep. .o7.5 What are the causal factorsin bipolar disorder?Biologicalcausal factors probably play an even more prominent role for bipolar disorders than for unipolar disorders. The geneticcontribution to bipolar disorder is among the strongestof such contributions to the major psychiatric disorders. Neurochemical imbalances, abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and disturbances in biological rhythmsall play important roles in bipolar disorders.Stressful life eventsmay be involved in precipitatingmanic or depressive episodes, but it is unlikely that they causethe disorder.-7.6 What are the treatments and outcomesfor mood disorders?oBiologicallybased treatmentssuch as medicationsor electroconvulsivetherapyare often used in the treatment of the more severemajor disorders.
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