Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale: Measures amount of life change, high scores correlated with illness and psychological problems Pressure: Expectations/demands to behave in a certain way (pressure to perform, pressure to conform, most strongly related to mental health) Responses to stress: Stressful event Appraisal Reaction Responses can be behavioral, physiological, or emotional Emotional reactions: Feelings + physiological reactions, negative/positive emotions (positive emotions correlated with resilience) Emotional arousal: Possible diminished performance Inverted-U Hypothesis (Yerkes-Dodson’s Law): Relates performance to arousal level, there is an optimal arousal level (too low = sluggish, too high = can’t focus) People perform best when at an intermediate level of arousal Physiological responses: Fight-flight response (how body responds to threat) Autonomic nervous system: Manages arousal, composed of nerves, functions without conscious control Composed of two parts: o Sympathetic nervous system (getting ready, it’s go time!) (heart rate up) o Parasympathetic nervous system (take it down a notch!) (heart rate down) General adaptation syndrome: Hans Selye found physiological stress response nonspecific Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Animals and humans less able to cope with new things in resistance phase Endocrine system: Glands that release hormones into your bloodstream, corticosteroids (increased access to energy storage), catecholamines (increased heart rate, respiration, perspiration), stress can suppress immune system Behavioral responses: Coping (efforts to deal with or reduce the effects of stress, can be adaptive or maladaptive) The stress we feel is affected by: o Perceived control (belief that we can influence our environment) o Self-efficacy (Belief in one’s ability) Effects of stress: o Impaired task performance (choking under pressure) o Impaired cognitive function (especially in area of attention) o Burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, low self-efficacy, has many consequences) Stress can lead to psychological problems, which are associated with certain psychological disorders Physical disorders: Psychosomatic diseases (caused by mental factors such as stress) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Enduring psychological disturbance following a major traumatic event (Key = The intensity of individual’s reaction to the traumatic event)
Positive benefits of stress: Satisfy need for change, promote personal growth, inoculation (gaining immunity from small dose of disease) Stress tolerance: o Social support (a very important moderator of stress, not just humans, helping others helps you too) o Hardiness (commitment, control, challenged) o Optimism (expecting good outcomes, optimists plan coping strategies while pessimists avoid and give up) Hardiness is characterized by three qualities: o Commitment to a cause o Sense of control o Appetite for challenge
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 65 pages?