A.2.Underlying motivations A.1.a.Antipathy for racial equalityA.1.b.Desire for controllable laborA.2.Reign of TerrorA.1.a.Against any perceived threat to white supremacyA.1.b.Against Republicans, black and white
A.1.c.Ku Klux Klan and other secret societies, aka, “military arm of the Democratic party in the South”C.Northern response A.1.Measures to protect blacks' rights A.1.a.Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871A.1.a.i.Outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the president to use the army against them.A.1.a.ii.Defined federal lawsthat violated civil and political rights (rather than state law)A.1.b.Civil Rights Act of 1875A.1.b.i.Outlawed racial discrimination in public places.A.2.North’s retreat from Reconstructionduring the 1870’sA.1.a.Liberal Republicanswere formedA.1.a.i.During the 1872 elections, the Liberal Republicans attacked Reconstruction and called it a failure.A.1.a.ii.Believed that federal power should be curtailed; Trumbull, A.1.a.iii.Nominated Horace Greeley for presidentA.1.a.iv.Less committed to equal rights for blacks than Radicals were.A.1.b.Resurgence of northern racismA.1.b.i.Believed the New South was corrupts and barbaric due to Negro government.A.1.b.ii.Blacks were blamed for the Reconstruction failure.A.1.c.Economic depressionA.1.d.Supreme Court decisions A.1.a.i.Slaughterhouse Cases1873 – ruled that the 14th amendment did not alter traditional federalism and most citizens rights remained under state control.A.1.a.ii.U.S. v. Cruikshank 1876- ct threw out conviction of participants in the Colfax Massacre by gutting the Enforcement Acts.D.Death throes of Reconstruction A.1.1874 Democraticgains in South; called themselves the "Redeemers" to white South from corruption, misgovernment and northern and black control.A.2.Resurgence of terror in state where Reconstruction government remained. (Mississippi)A.3.Rise of electoral fraudA.4.Disputed election of 1876 and Bargain of 1877 (Hayes – Tilden)A.4.a.Bargain of 1877marked the formal end to Reconstruction.A.5.The end of Reconstruction
Chapter 16America’s Gilded Age, 1870-1890Shallow display and worship of weath.I.II.1886A.The Statue of Liberty was dedicated in 1886 – to inspire renewed devotion to the nation’s political and economic system.B.Great upheaval – wave of strikes and labor protests across the nationIII.Second industrial revolution A.Between the end of the Civil War and the early 20thcenturyB.Rapid economic growth B.1.Abundant natural resources,B.2.Growing supply of laborB.3.Expanding market for manufactured goodsB.4.Available capital for investment.B.5.Federal government promoted industrial/ agricultural developmentB.5.a.enacted high tariffs to protect industry.B.5.b.Granted land to railroads for constructionB.5.c.Used the army to remove Indians from lands for farming/mining.C.Rapid expansion of factory production, mining, and railroad in the US – except the SouthC.1.By 1880, the majority of work was in non-farming jobs.