Learning on the job o general intelligence is

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learning on the job o General intelligence is correlated w/ all types of jobs but especially managerial & technical jobs
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o Children who believe that intelligence is fixed trait tend to underperform o Children who believe that intelligence is changeable and evolves perform better Possibility of innate difference btwn men and women is controversial – people see it as a product of sexism o Factors ranging from societal expectations to test taking strategies account for many sex differences o Women appear superior w/ fine motor skill, acquired knowledge, reading comprehension, decoding nonverbal expression, and generally have higher grades o Men appear superior w/ fluid reasoning, perceptual tasks involving moving objects, and tasks that require transformations in working memory such as mental rotations Stereotype threat – people concerned they’ll conform to a stereotype especially when aware of the stereotype o One antidote is self-affirmation before engaging in the activity Intelligence tests are not biased since they’re fairly accurate measures and predictors Why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents’ We have gone from people who confronted a concrete world & analyzed the world in terms of what benefits them o We now confront a very complex world where we had to develop new mental habits & new habits of mind People are getting far more questions right on IQ test than each succeeding generation o People a century ago scored against modern norms would have an average IQ of 70 o People now scored against norms a century ago would have an average IQ of 130 Luria looked at people before they entered scientific age – people were resistant to classifying the concrete world o They were resistant to deducing the hypothetical & to speculating about what might be o They did not deal well w/ abstractions or using logic on abstractions Luria asked concrete problems like what do crow and fish have in common o Another question was no camels in Germany, Hamburg is in Germany, does Hamburg in have camels o People before had trouble going past the concrete world and analyzes it thru everyday experience 3 categories of (1) classification (2) using logic on abstractions (3) taking hypothetical seriously o Education - we have gone from 4-8 years of formal educations to 12 years of formal education Much of the education we have is scientific – you can’t classify the world without science We are educating people to take the hypothetical seriously and to use abstractions logically
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