o Cause Vasodilation smooth muscle contraction increased vascular permeability

O cause vasodilation smooth muscle contraction

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oCause: Vasodilation, smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, attract neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophilsoTarget of inhibition for drug SingulairProstaglandinsProduced by mast cells-AKA reaction substances of anaphylaxis (SRS-A)-Produced by arachidonic pathway-cause increased vascular permeability, neutrophil chemotaxis, platelet aggregation, *induce pain & feverChemotactic Factors Attracts leukocytes to site of inflammation-Chemotaxis: directional movement of cells along a chemical gradient formed by a chemotactic factor Platelet Activating Factor-Derived from mast cell-Produced by removal of a fatty acid from the plasma membrane & produced during inflammation by neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial cells, platelets-Similar to leukotrienes (causes endothelial cell retraction to increase vascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, platelet activation)NeutrophilsPhagocytes in early inflammatory site (arrives 6-12 hours after initial injury) > ingest bacteria, dead cells, cellular debris-Short lived (mature cell, cannot divide, sensitive to acidic environment) >becomes component of purulent exudate/pus > removed from through epithelium or lymphatic system**Removal of debris in sterile lesions (burns) & phagocytosis of bacteria in nonsterile lesionsMonocytesPrecursors of macrophages that are found in the tissues (arrive 1-7 days after initial injury)*Largest normal blood cells (horseshoe shaped nucleus)-Responsible for presenting antigens to the CD4 cell which triggers T cell immunity > trigger B cell immunity-Produced in bone marrow > enter circulation > migrate to the inflammatory site where they develop into macrophages -Release cytokines:oIL1- fever, activates phagocytes & lymphocytes, increases release of IL 6oIL6- stimulates the production of acute phase reactants & promotes the growth and the stimulation of blood cellsoTNF can cause fever, increases the synthesis of pro inflammatory proteins by the liver, causes muscle wasting & induces thrombosisoGrowth factors- Promote production of maturation of neutrophilsComplement CascadeMay destroy pathogens directly & activate/collaborate with any other component of inflammatory system (Proteins in this system=body’s most potent defenders, especially against bacterial infection)oFunctionsinclude: bacterial lysis, vasodilation, increase vascular permeability, triggers mast cell degeneration, chemotaxis, opsonization (opsosin- molecules that “tag” microorganisms for destruction by cells of inflammatory system- neutrophils/macrophages)Kinin Cascade-Turned into bradykininoResponsible for: pain, chemotaxis, increase vascular permeability,
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vasodilationCoagulation Cascade **Group of plasma proteins that form a fibrinous mesh at an injured/inflamed site to stop bleeding and trap microorganisms-Activates the kinin system- May be activated by many substances that are released during tissue injury & infection-Factor XII (Hageman factor) activates kininb.
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