2014 after curing fabric was conditioned rinsed with

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2014 ). After curing, fabric was conditioned, rinsed with distilled water gently to remove non-ionic detergent, and dried at ambient condition. The properties of fi nished and un fi nished samples such as fi nish add-on, bending length, fl exural rigidity, and dry crease recovery angle were evaluated as per the standard procedure (British Standards 2012 ; American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists 2003 ). SEM has been used to magnify control and fi nished jute fi bre samples for surface investigation. 9.4 Finish Add-On The amount of fi nishing chemical added on the jute-blended fabric is shown in Table 2 . The percentage fi nish add-on is higher in nanopolysiloxane-based fi nish- ing (3.56 %) than other nanopolysiloxane combination fi nishing (<3.08 %). The cell wall of swollen natural fi bres consist of several hundreds of lamellae and have pores with a most common pore size of 160 380 nm (Parthasarathi 2008 ), while the 32 N. Gokarneshan et al.
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size of nano-, micro-, and macropolysiloxane emulsion ranges in 50 100, 200 300, and >500 nm, respectively (Lakshmanan et al. 2014 ). During application, most of the nanopolysiloxane emulsion can be easily adsorbed on the surface of the fi bre and then diffused inside the fi bre matrix; micropolysiloxane emulsion can be penetrated inside the fi bre partially; macrop- olysiloxane mainly can be spread only on the surface of the fi bre, while cationic softener can be coated on the surface of the fi bre (Ammayappan and Moses 2010 ). Due to improved diffusion behaviour of nanopolysiloxane, the extent of deposition is higher than its combination fi nishing. Moreover, in combination fi nishing, the diffusion of nanopolysiloxane to inside the fi bre is hindered, leading to a reduction in fi nish add-on. 9.5 Dry Crease Recovery Angle Figure 23 depicts the dry crease recovery angle of fi nished and un fi nished jute-blended fabric in both directions. Jute and cotton fi bres have many free OH groups in their fi bre matrix. When treated with prepolymer of nanopolysiloxane Table 2 Finishing combinations for jute-blended fabric (Lakshmanan et al. 2014 ) Combination No. Finishing chemical Amount fi nish add g/L on % Used 1 Ceraperm TOWI 80 3.56 Nano 2 Ceraperm TOWI + Ceraperm MW 40 + 40 3.08 Nano + Micro 3 Ceraperm TOWI + Ceraperm UP 40 + 40 2.98 Nano + Macro 4 Ceraperm TOWI + Leomin HBN 40 + 40 3.05 Nano + CS Fig. 23 Dry crease recovery angle of jute-blended fabrics fi nished with nanopolysiloxane-based fi nishing (Lakshmanan et al. 2014 ) Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 33
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emulsion, they are polymerized in the form of a thin fi lm on the surface of the fi bre, thus masking the free OH groups. The improvement in crease recovery angle is observed in nano + micro- and nano + CS combination fi nished fabrics when compared with untreated fabric in both directions (British Standards 2012 ; American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists 2003 ; Steele 1962 ; Bajaj 2002 ). The crease recovery property of the fabric in improved both in warp (10 %) and in weft (7 %) directions by combination of micropolysiloxane fi nishing.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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