In the example above, we have assumed that the options do not provide any tax advantages. To the extent that the exercise of the options creates tax advantages, the actual cost of the options will be lower by the tax savings. One simple adjustment is to multiply the value of the options by (1- tax rate) to get an after-tax option cost.
Aswath Damodaran 211 Option grants in the future… Assume now that this firm intends to continue granting options each year to its top management as part of compensation. These expected option grants will also affect value. The simplest mechanism for bringing in future option grants into the analysis is to do the following: • Estimate the value of options granted each year over the last few years as a percent of revenues. • Forecast out the value of option grants as a percent of revenues into future years, allowing for the fact that as revenues get larger, option grants as a percent of revenues will become smaller. • Consider this line item as part of operating expenses each year. This will reduce the operating margin and cashflow each year.
Aswath Damodaran 212 When options affect equity value per share the most… Option grants affect value more • The lower the strike price is set relative to the stock price • The longer the term to maturity of the option • The more volatile the stock price The effect on value will be magnified if companies are allowed to revisit option grants and reset the exercise price if the stock price moves down.
Aswath Damodaran 213 Valuations Aswath Damodaran
Aswath Damodaran 214 Companies Valued Company Model Used Key emphasis 1. Con Ed Stable DDM Stable growth inputs; Implied growth 2a. ABN Amro2-Stage DDMBreaking down value; Macro risk? 2b. Goldman 3-Stage DDMRegulatory overlay? 2c. Wells Fargo2-stage DDMEffects of a market meltdown? 2d. Deutsche Bank 2-stage FCFE Estimating cashflows for a bank 3. S&P 500 2-Stage DDM Dividends vs FCFE; Risk premiums 4. Tsingtao 3-Stage FCFE High Growth & Changing fundamentals 5. Toyota Stable FCFF Normalized Earnings 6. Tube Invest. 2-stage FCFF The cost of corporate governance 7. KRKA 2-stage FCFF Multiple country risk.. 8. Tata Group 2-stage FCFF Cross Holding mess 9. Amazon.com n-stage FCFF The Dark Side of Valuation… 10. Amgen 3-stage FCFF Capitalizing R&D
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