13. The Index of Sources provides a list of all the passages translated in the present work and also indicates those which have been translated by Nicholson or Arberry. Part I: Theory 1. S. H. Nasr pointed out the fundamental importance of this distinction in Rumis works in his Jalal al-Din Rumi . 2. "I am God" is the famous saying of the Sufi martyr ,Hallaj and plays an important role in Rumi's teachings (see III, A, 7). It should also be remarked that here "death" refers both to the death of the body, upon which things are seen with piercing vision (see I, D, 11), and to the "spiritual death'' whereby man is reborn in God (see III, A, 5). 3. Abu Jahl, the "father of ignorance," is the title given by the Prophet to one of his contemporaries in Mecca who did everything in his power to thwart the new religion. 4. Within the selections, Koranic quotations are indicated by italics and, if necessary, chapter and verse. 5. The spirit belongs to the created order, a fact affirmed by the prophetic hadith quoted below. Rumi delineates the four levels of spirit explicitly in two passages, the first of which is translated below (M II 3326-29, IV 1887-89). 6. The "single soul" ( nafs-i wahid ) is referred to both in the Koran and the Hadith. See below, the end of section I, D, 3. 7. In Sufism the nafs is often divided into three levels according to Koranic terminology: The nafs-i ammarah , or the soul which incites to evil, is the level of the ego, as we saw above. The two higher stages, lawwamah (the soul
Page 353 that "blames" itself for its own faults) and mutma'innah (the soul "at peace" with Cod) are sometimes referred to by Rumi (for example, M V 557, D 9047, 23068, 29515, 31182, 34209). Rumi also mentions the "Universal Soul" (nofs-i kull or kulli), which is the passive pole of spiritual existence, as opposed to the active pole, the Universal Intellect (see M II 173, D 2507, 4884, 32426, 33296); and he refers to the "supernal souls'' (nufus), which are equivalent to the "celestial intellects" ('uqul; M VI 450, VI 3072). In one passage of Fihi ma fihi, nafs is taken to mean the hisher spirit and ruh the animal spirit (F 56/ 68). Many other examples are also found where Rumi employs the word nafs in a positive sense, as equivalent to "spirit." In such instances I have translated it as soul instead of ego. 8. Solomon is well-known for his miraculous powers over all the forces of nature, especially the wild animals and the jinn. Rumi refers to him frequently in his poetry, making use of several different stories related in Islamic sources. The most important of these for our purposes are the following: 1. Solomon's seal. Solomon's miraculous seal or signet ring provided him with his power over man, nature, and the jinn. "And his hosts were mustered to Solomon, jinn, men, and birds" (Koran XXVII 17). On one occasion a jinni assumed Solomon's shape and was able to steal his seal, and for a short time he ruled over Solomon's kingdom. 2. The language of the birds. In the Koran Solomon says, "Men, we have been taught the language of the birds" (XXVII 16). The Sufis interpret this to mean the language of the divine mysteries or of the birds of the spirit which fly in God's Presence. 3. The ants. When Solomon's armies "came to the
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