etc. To him, the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction since removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He proposed a dual continuum as the opposite of satisfaction is no-satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no-dissatisfaction. As a result, Herzberg characterized conditions such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relationships with others, and job security as hygiene factors. When they‟re adequate, people will not be dissatisfied and neither will they be satisfied. If we want to motivate people on their jobs, emphasizing on factors associated with the work itself or with outcomes directly derived from it such as promotional opportunities, personal growth opportunities, recognition, responsibility, and achievement is advisable. Since, such factors are the characteristics people find intrinsically rewarding. However, this two-factor theory has not been well supported in the literature, and it has many detractors. Criticisms regarding Herzberg‟s methodology for its limitation to self -report, reliability, and not including overall measure of satisfaction forwarded by researchers. 2. DOUGLAS MCGREGOR THEORY -X AND THEORY -Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled theory-X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory- Y. After studying managers‟ dealings with employees, McGregor concluded that their views of the nature of human beings are based on certain assumptions that mold their behavior.
29 Under Theory X, managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it. Whereas , Under Theory Y , managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek responsibility. McGregor himself believed theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X. Therefore, he proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations are vital to maximize an employee‟s job motivation. Unfortunately, no evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is valid or that acting on Theory Y assumptions will lead to more motivated workers. 3. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Reinforcement theory takes a behaviorist view by which reinforcement conditions the behavior of individuals. Reinforcement theorists see behavior as environmentally caused, and what controls behavior is reinforces. It ignores the inner state of the individual and concentrates solely on what happens when he or she takes some action. Although reinforces such as pay can motivate people, the process is much more complicated than stimulus – response. In its pure form, reinforcement theory ignores feelings, attitudes, expectations, and other cognitive variables known to affect behavior.
- Winter '14
- team ebg