GSIS
GISA105_IO_paper3.docx

Purpose of peacekeeping was to contain fighting or

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purpose of peacekeeping was to “contain fighting or stabilize a cease-fire until negotiations produced a lasting peace agreement.” Today peacekeeping is multidimensional, such that operations include a mixture of military, police, and civilians working together to bring about sustainable peace. Disarmament is the concept in which includes “limiting, controlling, and reducing weapons for waging war, has long had a prominent place in proposals to promote peace.” Nuclear weapons are the greatest concern in the 21 st century, since not only does the risk of proliferation can affect peace, but if terrorists gain access to such weapons there will be difficulty in combatting them. NPT is the idea that there is a ”bargain between the declared nuclear weapon states and the non-nuclear weapon states. The latter pledged not to develop nuclear weapons, and in return the former promised to give up their own nuclear weapons at some future time and to aid the latter in gaining access to peaceful nuclear technologies.” The 1925 Geneva Protocol banned both chemical and biological weapons for warfare and in general, due to the taboo nature that the methodological use of such weapons is inhumane. Chemical weapons can kill tens of thousands, while biological weapons can kill hundreds of thousands. The challenges to human security are profound. Traditionally, security is thought in terms of Westphalian concept of the sovereignty of the nation-state. Although such norm is not eradicated, today security has further evolved and broadened to include security of human beings everywhere. The challenges of poverty, human rights abuses, AIDS, and socio-economic issues affecting human beings now disrupt peace between nations and within. Such challenges need to be coordinated by states in an innovative manner. R2P will further be defined as new challenges to human security broaden.
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