Degree 4 Λ LE =65.48 0 Degree 5 Λ c/2 =59.86 0 Degree 6 Cl β No unit 7 S=42.93 m 2 8 (W/S) L =6845.71 kg/m 3 9 (W/S) TO =8053.78 kg/m 3 10 (W/S) L max= 440.41 kg/m 3 11 b=12.15 Unit m 12 C root = 5.43 Unit m 13 C tip =1.63 Unit m 14 AR eq =2.18 No unit 15 C=3.87 Unit m 16 (t/c) root = 0.118 No unit 17 (t/c) tip = 0.66 No unit 18 Y=6.53 Unit m 19 X=3.14 Unit m 20 S=42.93 m 2 21 Wing incidence=0 0 Degree
Airfoil characteristics: COFFICIEND OF LIFTS: Considering steady state level flight , L=W 1. calculation of aircraft maximum coefficient of lift(C Lmax ) C Lmax = ( ) ∗ ∗ Where, W 0 =18920Kg W 0 =185605.2N S=38.449m 2 =1.225 Kg/m 3 at sea level V stall =64.43m/s C Lma C Lmax = C Lmax =1.9 2.calculation of wing maximum lift coefficiend Clmax (w) = =1.9/0.95 =2 3. calculation of wing airfoil gros maximum lift coefficient Clmax (gross) = . =2.2 (FLAP DOWN) Where the wing airfoil gross maximum coefficient in which the effect of high lift devices is include eg, flap ( . ) ∗ . ∗ . ) ∗ ∗ x = ( Therefore, ( ) L=(1/2)*(V stall ) 2 * *S*C Lmax
4. calculation of wing airfoil net maximum lift coefficient C l max = Clmax (gross) - C l(HLD) HIGH LIFT DEVICE SELECTION (FLAP): C l(HLD) SELECTED HIGH LIFT DEVICE : IS DOUBBLE SLOTTED For a double sloteted flap CL is given by Cf/C=0.3 Therefore CL= 0.3*1.6 =0.48 Therefore, The calculation of wing airfoil net maximum lift coefficient is given by C l max = Clmax (gross) - C l(HLD) C l max = 2.2 – 0.48 The corresponding airfoils are given by NACA 23012 AIRFOIL: Max thickness 12% at 29.8% chord. Max camber 1.8% at 12.7% chord NACA 23018AIRFOIL: Max thickness 18% at 30% chord. Max camber 1.8% at 15% chord C l max =1.72
V-N DIAGRAM : Flight regime of any aircraft includes all permissible combinations of speeds, altitudes, weights, centers of gravity, and configurations. This regime is shaped by aerodynamics, propulsion, structure, and dynamics of aircraft. The borders of this flight regime are called flight envelope or maneuvering envelope. The safety of human onboard is guaranteed by aircraft designer and manufacturer. Pilots are always trained and warned through flight instruction manual not to fly out of flight envelope, since the aircraft is not stable, or not controllable or not structurally strong enough outside the boundaries of flight envelope. A mishap or crash is expected, if an aircraft is flown outside flight envelope. The flight envelope has various types; each of which is usually the allowable variations of one flight parameter versus another parameter. These envelopes are calculated and plotted by flight mechanics engineers and employed by pilots and flight crews. For instance, the load masters of a cargo aircraft must pay extra caution to the center of gravity location whenever they distribute various loads on the aircraft. There are several crashes and mishaps that safety board's report indicated that load master are responsible, since they deployed more loads than allowed, or misplaced the load before take-off. Nose heavy and tail heavy are two flight concepts that pilots are familiar and experienced with, and are trained to deal with them safely.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 100 pages?
- Winter '12
- Aerodynamics, Fixed-wing aircraft, Airfoil, Wing design, aircraft wing