Categories of development motor language adaptive

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Categories of development: motor, language, adaptive behaviour, and personal-social behaviour JEAN PIAGET Universal stages of child development a) Sensorimotor stage(0-2 ): the child begins to interact with the environmentb) Preoperational stage(2-7) : the child begins to represent the world symbolically c) Concrete Operational Stage(7-12) : the child learns rules such as conservationsd) Formal Operational Stage(12-adulthood): the adolescent can go beyond the concrete situation and think about the future Scientific endorsement for progressive child-centred education JOHN BOWLBY: Attachment theory investigated in the context of biological adaptation Emphasis on maternal bond with child "Natural patterns of care" based on minority world cultural values Incorporating a developmental and childhood studies approach: LEV VYGOTSKY Founder of cultural-historical psychology Challenged idea that development is a universal, natural process Says psychologists should study the historical child Moral panic : Sociological concept to denote processes of public labelling and handling of perceived deviance Happens when a condition, episode person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests Participant Observation: BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI Did field work in Trobriand Islands Meant learning the local language, watching people in their daily lives, participating in their rituals and asking questions about meaning an significance of their actions Field notes based on anthropologists participation in the community's everyday life Thick Description: CLIFFORD GEERTZ Thin description merely records an action Thick description provides context (who,what,where,how) of a gesture or act and what it meant Must take context into account at all times because gestures have multiple meanings and histories Ethnocentricism Judging the practices of another culture by ones own culture The idea that the culture, social life, morals and manners of Europeans and Americans are better and more "civilized" than others Cultural Relativism A method of inquiry
The understanding that societies differ in their cultural attitude to social phenomena and therefore no universal criteria can be applied to compare one cultural view with another. Cultures can be only judged through reference to their own standards MARGARET MEAD Mead argued that Somoan youth did not experience the same stresses of adolescence characterizing North American teens lives Regarded disruptive behaviour as culturally rather than biologically determined Considered first anthropologist to take children, as children seriously WH RIVERS British anthropologist who led expedition in 1898 to Papua New Guinea to study nature and landscape of islands as well as psychological and social life of people who lived there FRANZ BOAS American anthropologist who studied Inuit culture in Baffin Islands New sociology of childhood

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