Designed to be powerful tools that do a single task

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designed to be powerful tools that do a single task extremely well (e.g. grep finds text inside files while wc counts the number of words, lines and bytes inside a file). Users can often solve problems by interconnecting these tools instead of writing a large monolithic application program. Application programsLinux distributions typically come with several useful application programs as standard. Examples include the emacs editor, xv (an image viewer), gcc (a C compiler), g++ (a C++ compiler), xfig (a drawing package), latex (a powerful typesetting language) and soffice (StarOffice, which is an MS-Office style clone that can read and write Word, Excel and PowerPoint files). Redhat Linux also comes with rpm, the Redhat Package Manager which makes it easy to install and uninstall application programs. Logging into and out of UNIX System: Text-based (TTY) terminals: When you connect to a UNIX computer remotely (using telnet) or when you log in locally using a text-only terminal, you will see the prompt:
login: At this prompt, type in your usename and press the enter/return/key. Remember that UNIX is case sensitive (i.e. Will, WILL and will are all different logins). You should then be prompted for your password: login: will password: Type your password in at the prompt and press the enter/return/key. Note that your password will not be displayed on the screen as you type it in. If you mistype your username or password you will get an appropriate message from the computer and you will be presented with the login: prompt again. Otherwise you should be presented with a shell prompt which looks something like this: $ To log out of a text-based UNIX shell, type "exit" at the shell prompt (or if that doesn't work try "logout"; if that doesn't work press ctrl-d). Graphical terminals:If you're logging into a UNIX computer locally, or if you are using a remote login facility that supports graphics, you might instead be presented with a graphical prompt with login and password fields. Enter your user name and password in the same way as above (N.B. you may need to press the TAB key to move between fields). Once you are logged in, you should be presented with a graphical window manager that looks similar to the Microsoft Windows interface. To bring up a window containing a shell prompt look for menus or icons which mention the words "shell", "xterm", "console" or "terminal emulator". To log out of a graphical window manager, look for menu options similar to "Log out" or "Exit". Linux Commands These commands will work with most (if not all) distributions of Linux as well as most (?) implementations of Unix. They're the commands that everybody knows. To be able to survive in Linux, you should know these. There aren't always handy-dandy tools for X that shield you, especially if you're managing your own system, stuff often goes wrong and you're forced to work with the bare minimum.
1. Navigation - how to get around ocd - changing directories ols - listing files opwd - knowing where you are 2. File Management - who needs a graphical file manager?

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