and the USA: Pine Tree Line, Mid-Canada Line DEW Line •1953: CIA involvement in Iran: Code Name: TP-AJAX -Coup to overthrow President Mossad and replace him with Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (in 1951, Mossad had nationalised Iran’s oil industry) -Replacement of a constitutional moray with a pro-Western, corrupt and authoritarian gov’t •Created a system of alliances to contain Communism -1954: Asia=SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organisation) -1955: Baghdad Pact, which eventually became CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) •Under Eisenhower, the US experience a series of blows to it’s prestige in the international community -Korean War: while the US won a limited victory (containment and independence of South Korea) MacArthur’s defiance of orders, McCarthy’s accusations of communism, and the involvement of the Chinese were all regrettable aspects of the war -US funding French war efforts vs. Ho Chi Minh in Indonesia…. domino theory -Further increased US military aid to South Vietnam the form of money, political support, weapons and military advisors when the French left •1956: Suez Crisis - Nasser sought an arms deal with the USA: USA says no, aware that Egypt woud use weaponry in its ongoing conflict with US ally Israel - Nasser turned to Eastern Europe for military deal. Secured arms through Czechoslovakia (front for Soviet- sponsored deal) - US froze funding to the American-sponsored Answan Dam - In need of funding, Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal - French-British-Israeli backroom deal and military action - Soviets threatened use of nuclear weapons in support of it’s client state - US intervened and public chastised the British and French - Meanwhile, Soviets cracking down in Hungary - US seen to fail in its promises to assist all people resisting the forces of communism - Truman Doctrine is frequently broadcasted on Radio Free Europe
- USA becomes the primary superpower in the Middle East & the official broker of all future peace negotiations - Introductions of UNEF “Peacekeepers” (Pearson/Canadian contributions) •1957: Launch of Sputnik stunned the US and demonstrated that the USA could no longer claim superiority in all areas of technology …etc. fear of Soviet weapons in space… •1960: Soviets shot down and captured U2 spy planes and its pilot, Gary Powers -The incident served to further increase tensions over Berlin between the Soviets and the Americans •New Look’s focus on minimising cost reflected in US policy in the Americas - Latin American Training Center for US Ground Forces based in Panama (relocated to Georgia in 1984) - US Department of Defence military academy for Latin American officers to be instructed in leadership, infantry and counter insurgency •Guatemala - Until 1944: brutal dictatorship under Jorge Ubico: pro-US policies & supported United Fruit Company monopoly over banana production - 1944: Coup ousted him - 1945: Juan José Arévalo = 1st democratically elected president - 1949: Arbenz won the presidency in free & fair elections- he was a centre leftist who
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