North America 258 BMT Asia 293 BMT Europe/Russia/Central Asia 355 BMT Middle East 2 BMT Africa 55 BMT South America 20~ BMT Annual global consumption 5 BMT China, US, Russia account for 50% of CO2 released They have a lot of the coal Environmental Impacts Land Land disturbances from open put and strip mining Mining area acid drainage Subsidence over subsurface mines Water Surface water and groundwater pollution Air Air pollution from thermoelectric power plants
Energy 14:49 Disposal of coal ash—5-20% of original coal Chief degrader of the atmosphere Biology Area ecosystem degradation Due to mining practices Inadequate land reclamation Hydrocarbons (Oil and Gas They are hydrocarbons because Due to chemical composition Of C, H, O Natural gas Mostly methane CH4 O and G Formed from transformation of organic matter Heavily mined through production wells Other forms Oil shale From shale Tar sands From sandstone Geology Formation of O&G Rapid burial of organic material Anaerobic environment Biogenic or thermogenic transformation Oil window opens at 3-6km deep After formation oil and gas
Energy 14:49 Migration to reservoirs Trapped Only in certain structures Geologic conditions for O&G fields to form Source rock Fine grained organic rich sedimentary rocks-shale O&G migrates upward to the reservoir rocks from source rock Reservoir rock Porous and permeable rocks Cap rock Impermeable rock that acts as a barrier to trap O&G in place forming oil fields Common oil traps are Anticlines Like a peak, trapped at the top Faults On a fault line Normal or reverse faults Unconformities Normal layers Then layers angle into the other layers Less than 90 degree angle Salt domes What is oil field or province Field Many places in a given area with wells Province Many fields in a given region
Energy 14:49 Production Commonly through drilled wells Types Reservoir engineering Primary recovery Pump no more than 25% of petroleum in field under natural reservoir pressure which we control through reservoir engineering Enhanced recovery Manipulate reservoir pressure Inject gases and liquids Or heat Used to get 50-60% of petroleum out Distribution Oil and gas come almost exclusively from sedimentary rocks Younger than 500 million years old 85% of total production is in less than 5% of all production fields 65% of total production comes from about 1% of fields giant fields most giant fields found near recently active plate boundaries formed in last 70 million years
Energy 14:49 natural gas Reserves larger global reserves are expected to last 100+ years at current rate of consumption most reserves in Russia and Middle East North America too Environmental Benefit
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