Cytoskeleton: ● Functions: ○ as cell’s skeleton ○ Provides internal protein framework ○ Gives cytoplasm strength and flexibility ● Components include: ○ Microfilaments ○ Intermediate filaments ○ Microtubules Centrioles: ● Structure: ○ Composed of microtubules. ○ A centrosome consists of two centrioles joined together. ● Function:
○ Control the movement of DNA strands during cell divisions Cilia: Long, slender plasma membrane extensions Motile Cilia: Common in respiratory and reproductive tracts Motile cilia beat rhythmically: Primary cilium function as the senor Flagella are longer than cilia and beat in a wavelike fashion Membrane flow: With the exception of mitochondria, all membranous organelles in the cell are either interconnected or in communication through the movement of vesicles. This communication movement is called membrane flow. Steps of ATP production:(sequentially) ● Glycolysis: glycolysis is breaking down of 1 glucose into two pyruvate molecules. It occurs in cytosol a. 1 glucose→ 2 pyruvates (cytosol) b. Then, the synthesized pyruvates move into mitochondria. ● In Mitochondrial matrix: a. CO2 is removed from pyruvates b. Then, the remainder enters the citric acid cycle c. In the citric acid cycle, the remnant pyruvates are broken down into carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms. ● The hydrogen atoms are delivered to the enzymes and coenzymes of the Cristae, and then these Enzymes and coenzymes use hydrogen atoms to catalyze ATP from ADP. a. At the end of this process, oxygen combines with hydrogen atoms to form water molecules ● Finally, ATP leaves mitochondria. Aerobic metabolism/ cellular respiration: ● It is a method of ATP production that occur in mitochondria in presence of oxygen.
● It is Much more efficient than ATP production without oxygen(Anaerobic metabolism) ● Produces about 95% of ATP ● Remaining 5 percent produced by the enzymatic reaction in the cytoplasm(anaerobic metabolism) Nucleus: ● Structure: ○ It is usually the largest cellular structure. ○ Surrounded by a double membrane called nuclear envelop ■ Nuclear envelope separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. ■ The inner and outer nuclear envelop is separated by prenuclear space. ■ Nuclear envelopes contain nuclear pores: ● Passageways that allow chemical communication between the nucleus and cytosol. ● Proteins at the pores regulate the movement of ions and small molecules. ○ Nucleus contain Nucleoplasm: ■ Fluid contents of the nucleus ■ Contains network of fine filaments for structural support ■ Also contains ions, enzymes, nucleotides, small amounts of RNA and DNA ○ The nucleus contains Nucleoli(singular nucleolus): ■ Nucleoli are transient nuclear organelles that synthesize rRNA.
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