GMO foods were more tested than any other on the market Comments including

Gmo foods were more tested than any other on the

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GMO foods were more tested than any other on the market - Comments including tomatoes were crossed with fish, etc. - Antifreeze gene from Artic flander fish o Wanted to put that gene into tomatoes in Florida to avoid tomatoes from frost season o Never done o But even so, would not turn tomato into a fish! o Just code for one protein - Introduction of new food o All kinds of requirements necessary Biochemical, toxicological, nutritional, allergenic data Estimate of dietary exposure Anticipated pattern of use Potential harm to non-target species Potential to spread genetic material to other species Potential of plant to become a weed Impact on biodiversity - Ex. Brazil Nuts rich in methionine (amino acid) o Critical amino acid for the production of animal o Much of animal feed today comes from soya beans, but they are poor in methionine o Gene that codes for methionine from brazil nuts and put into soya bean o Worry that arises (Ex. Allergy to brazil nuts) o People who were allergic to brazil nuts broke out from soya that was GMO from brazil nuts Shows that tests were done to demonstrate a risk, which is why the product was never marketed - Four most common GMO crops grown o Maize (corn) o Cotton o Soybean (soy) o Canola (rapeseed) - % of GMO crops grown by developing nations: 49% - % of GMO crops grown by industrialized nations: 51% - Risks of GMO must be weighed against benefits - Why do we need them? o Canola is genetically modified It is a crop used to produce oil for cooking, lubricating, etc. “roundup” resistant Modify the crop in such a way that it is not susceptible to round up, can spray the weeds without killing the plant Less tillage
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Benefit because tillage is energy expensive, so with roundup resistant canola you used a lot less fuel and herbicide You get higher yield Chemical used is called glyphosate Potential toxicity because it kills wheat But: less toxic than aspirin, salt, etc. - Strip away politics, look at data glyphosate is one of the safest herbicides out there - Problem is resistance to glyphosate o Not every plant takes up the gene, and some with survive the spraying of round up, create offspring that also resist - Second most widely used technology: insertion of a gene into a crop that codes for a toxin that kills off insects o Basillus thuringiensis= bacteria that produces a protein that is toxic to insects but not toxic to humans at all o We don’t have the enzyme that breaks it down into toxic material o Possible to remove the gene from this bacterium and insert it into a crop that can therefore protect itself against insects Common in corn o Avoids corn borer Rotting fusarium eat rot: fumonisms (established carcinogen) o Reduces mycotoxins o Not only available for corn, but also for potato plant (Colorado potato beetle) o Not widely used in potatoes public misperception that the potato would be made ‘dangerous’ - Connection to monarch butterflies o Hatches form caterpillar, devastating to many crops o
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  • Spring '11
  • Multiple
  • The American, Genetically modified organism, Pesticide, glyphosate

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