IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

In addition as explained in sections 32 and 33

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In addition, as explained in sections 3.2 and 3.3, interoperability among the various very different parts of the whole grid must be ensured, and sophisticated control intelligence is also essential for availability and overall efficiency 10 . Successful deployment in any one country may further depend on the size and health of an indigenous “EES supply industry” which can help to control costs and ensure availability. Three storage technologies seem to emerge from the study as the most significant. In order of decreasing technological maturity, they are pumped hydroelectricity (PHS), electrochemical batteries, and hydrogen/synthetic natural gas. In Figure 5-1 only the last two are mentioned because they both – in different ways – need more development than PHS. Batteries require development primarily to decrease cost, and for some technologies to increase energy density as well; hydrogen/SNG must be further researched and developed across a broad front, including physical facilities, interactions with existing uses of gas, optimal chemical processes, safety, reliability and efficiency. 5.5 Recommendations addressed to policy-makers and regulators Recommendation 5.5.1 – Public support for development of conventional storage Given their intentions to increase greatly the proportion of renewable energies, the IEC recommends policy-makers to consider seriously the further development of conventional storage, such as pumped hydroelectricity, notwithstanding the difficulties of siting and construction. Recommendation 5.5.2 – Long-term storage, on the order of months The IEC’s study has shown that many governments’ current plans for how electricity will be generated and managed in the future cannot be implemented without long-term storage with capacities in the multi-TWh range. It therefore recommends policy-makers, whose actions are essential to the creation of long-term, very-large-capacity storage, to work actively on the public aspects, and to create the incentives to encourage private actors to play their part. Recommendation 5.5.3 – Cooperation between energy sectors; coherent regulations Hydrogen and synthetic natural gas added to natural gas are likely to be essential elements of future electric grids because of their energy storage duration and capacity. The IEC therefore recommends regulators to achieve the conditions for all necessary cooperation between the energy markets in electricity and gas, including use of infrastructure. Recommendation 5.5.4 – Incentives for development and operation of storage The IEC recommends policy-makers to make the encouragement of storage deployment a public policy goal. The long-term storage of surplus energy from renewables is sometimes more expensive than additional generation from existing fossil-fuel plants. However, the storage necessary for future grids will only become available if private actors see an advantage 10 These aspects of implementation will be particularly dependent on the existence of the relevant international standards.
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