Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

One descriptive name reflects an unpleasant

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One descriptive name reflects an unpleasant characteristic: The element name osmium is taken from the Greek word osme , which means “odor.” The element got its name because one of its common compounds, OsO 4 , smells terrible! Official naming rights Since 1949, the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), based in Oxford, England, has been responsible for the international names for the elements. These names are used when chemicals are sold from one country to another. However, countries can use their own names within their borders—and many countries do, especially those that do not use the English alphabet in their native language. When a new element is identified, the discoverers are awarded the privilege of proposing a name. This is not always a straightforward process, since some of the heaviest elements exist for only fractions of a second. When several labs in different parts of the world are working on similar projects, it can be difficult to determine who should get credit for being first. However, the elements up through element 109, meitnerium, now have official IUPAC names. Some of these names you will recognize as familiar figures from your study of modern physics. Others, like hassium and dubnium, are named after places where the elements were synthesized. Perhaps in your lifetime you will have a hand in naming a new element! Questions: 1. Take a look at the periodic table. How many elements can you find that are named after scientists you have studied? 2. The names for cerium and palladium have something in common. Use a library or the internet to find out the origin of these names and explain their relationship 3. Three competing groups proposed names for elements 104 to 108. Find out who they were and how the IUPAC finally resolved the controversy in 1997. Chapter 7 Connection
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154 Name That Element Each element on the periodic table has a chemical symbol that is an abbreviation of the element’s name. Unlike the abbreviations for a U.S. state, these symbol-abbreviations are not always obvious. Many are derived from the element’s name in a language such as Latin or German. The chemical symbol for silver is “Ag”. Note that the first letter in the symbol is upper case and the second is lower case. Writing symbols this way allows us to represent all of the elements without getting confused. There is a big difference between the element cobalt, with its symbol Co, and the compound carbon monoxide, written as CO. In this activity, you’ll make a set of flashcards for 30 elements and then play a game to see who in your class knows their elements. Materials: 30 blank 8 × 10 cards and markers What you will do 1. Each person in the class writes the symbol of one of the elements from the list on one of the large cards. Make sure you write the chemical symbol large enough so you can see it all the way across the classroom. The elements suggested below are some of the most common elements.
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