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and climber subculture membership ●Chasing the Moment (Robinson) ○35 year old climber: “Yeah, trad climbing is more, is about the fear, trad climbing is about overcoming fear, and it’s just about being out there, and hoping you get that thing. I’ve talked to a few people about this, and a lot of people see the same thing, you’re chasing, I think, yeah, it’s probably that you’re chasing one moment all the time. Who was it I was talking to? An interview with somebody and they said the same thing, you’re chasing a moment and you get it maybe two or three times a year, where you’re absolutely on form and you’re just not scared at all, and you’re just flowing, and the whole thing is a joy, and the rest of the time, you’re in that nether world of half, of like, one minute you’re having a great time, next minute you’re shit scared and not enjoying it.” (Robinson, 2004, p. 12) ●The Positives of Risk ○Actively seeking opportunities for risk, provides a site for experiences of: ■Freedom, control, individual expression, self-actualization, personal fulfillment, and transcendance ●Researchers have shown that many risk sports are predominantly practiced by the middle/upper middle/elite classes, since they possess the economic capital that can be converted into the time and product/services necessary for involvement in these activities. Risk sports, and the socio-psychological benefits thought to derive from them,
also related to the middle/upper middle class habitus, specifically regarding the: (Bourdieu) ○“Intrinsic long term rewards from physical and psychological self-betterment” ●However, the middle/upper classes are not the only ones involved in risk sports… ○Those with less economic capital, are similarly involved in a quest for excitement, through the creative usage and adaptation of their local environments ●The Quest for Excitement: Parkour/Free Running (Gilchrist and Wheaton) ○Developed by young residents of a working class Parisian suburb (banlieue) called, Lisses in the 1980s ○“The art of moving fluidly from one part of the environment to another... ○...It shares some characteristics with other urban lifestyle sports like skateboarding, such as ambivalence to man-on-man (sic) formal competition, an emphasis on self-expression and attitudes to risk, which tend to be carefully calculated and managed rather than taken unnecessarily” (p. 112) ●The Quest for Excitement: Tomb-Stoning ●Risk, Social Disadvantage, and Control/Identity ○“The ‘thrill’ derives from the proximity of danger, or even death, and the oppositional status of the act” - Morrissey Theme 5: Cycle Messengers: Work-Based Subcultures ●Most sporting subcultures are based around activities that take place in the leisure (non-work) time of participants ○Work --- Life ○Work --- Non-Work ○Work --- Leisure ●Leisure (non-work) time has increasingly become important in defining individual identity ○This is partly due to the breakdown in traditional forms and tenures of employment (the demise of the “job for life”) ○Many are now defined by what they do in their non-work (leisure) time, as