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of men. a) one-quarter b) one-third c) half d) the same as e) two timesAUD Associated Problems⬧Anxiety ⬧Depression AUD Associated Problems⬧Antisocial Personality Disorder ⬧Conduct Disorder (in adolescence) ⬧AggressionBiological FactorsGenetics of alcoholism ⬧Family Studies ⬧Twin Studies concordance rates MZ vs DZ twins Males: 56% vs 33%; Females: 30% vs 17% ⬧Adoption Studies
Possible Genetic MechanismsPersonality Traits (e.g., sensation seeking, binge drinking?) Alcohol MetabolismPossible Genetic MechanismsNeurochemical Mechanisms Endorphins (endogenous opioids) ⬧“natural pain relievers” ⬧Released during exercise, excitement, etc. ⬧Also released in response to alcohol ⬧Produce analgesia and a feeling of well being ⬧Involved in controlling pain, emotion, stressEndorphins disinhibit dopamine pathways !reward pathways in the brain are activatedAlcohol Release of endorphinsIncreased activity along dopamine (reward) pathwaysEndogenous OpioidsEndorphins are similar to morphine: ⬧effects on pain ⬧produce tolerance & withdrawal symptoms in lab animals Some individuals may experience an exaggerated activation of the endogenous opioid system in response to alcohol.Endogenous OpioidsPossible role in brain’s response to alcohol ⬧Opioid system response in people who seem predisposed to consume high levels of alcohol ⬧Effects of receptor antagonists on lab animals (reduction in self-administration of alcohol) ⬧Effects of Naltrexone, an antagonist of endogenous opioids, on alcoholic patients ⬧Naltrexone blocks the effects of endorphins and the effects of opiates, leading to a reduction in alcohol consumptionNaltrexone is an antagonist of (blocks receptors for) endorphins and opiates Alcohol Release of endorphinsIncreased activity along dopamine (reward) pathways, due to disinhibitionNaltrexone
Question Which of the following statements about Naltrexone is/are true?