Note that it is only necessary to utilize atp in the

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Note that it is only necessary to utilize ATP in the formation of the first thioester bond. Formation and Transport of Acyl-carnitine The acyl-CoA is transported into the mitochondrial matrix for oxidation by transferring the acyl group on CoA to carnitine. The acyl-carnitine is transported into the mitochondria. 1. G = 0, therefore the free energy of the initial ATP hydrolysis is still preserved.
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2 2. Transport into mitochondria is a coordinated exchange: acyl-carnitine goes in, carnitine comes out. The acyl group is moved from carnitine to CoA in the matrix space. This is an another example of a cytosol-mitochondria shuttle. There is no net transfer of CoA or carnitine between these two cellular compartments. Many other types of shuttle exist, e.g. those for ATP and NADH. β -Oxidation In the mitochondrial matix space, the acyl-CoA is oxidized in 2-carbon units to acetyl-CoA. The four steps required are illustrated below for a hexyl-CoA, where R1 is the CoA moiety. 1. Formation of trans α - β double bond by dehyrogenation by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase , an FAD enzyme.
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