Appraisal of situation based on past experience and

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Appraisal of situation based on past experience and knowledge Can identify the emotion experienced based on appraisal E.g. A strange man approaching you in a park at night or at friend’s party Cognitive Appraisal Theory Strange man approaching (stimulus) Situation is not threatening (primary appraisal of situation based on past experience and knowledge) I feel excited (differentiation of emotion / identifying the emotion) My heart rate increases and I start trembling slightly (physiological arousal) I decide to talk to him (secondary appraisal where I think about how to act an what the consequences are) I stop talking to him and walk away as he tells me he’s married (reappraisal based on new information)
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Cognitive Appraisal Theory Stimulus Strange man approaches me at a party Primary appraisal based on past experience and knowledge The situation is not threatening Differentiation of emotion (identifying the emotion) I feel excited Physiological arousal My heart rate increases and my breathing speeds up Secondary appraisal where I think about an action and its consequences I decide to talk to him Reappraisal based on new information not evident initially. I walk away without talking to him as he is wearing a wedding ring
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Primary and Secondary Emotions 8 primary/basic emotions ANTICIPATION SADNESS ANGER SURPRISE FEAR CCEPTANCE JOY DISGUST Secondary emotions - combination of primary emotions Surprise + Sadness = Disappointment Joy + Anticipation = Optimism Secondary – different cultural interpretations Primary emotions – universal Evident to all cultures Contribute to survival Distinct facial expressions Evident in animals
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Expressed Emotions Emotions expressed in different ways Internal expression – physiological changes, subtle changes for different emotions External expression – words, non-verbal communication, tone of voice, gestures, facial expressions If external expression viewed in context it can help us identify the nature and intensity of the emotion Context of Emotions Rely on contextual cues to interpret emotions Incorrect interpretation will occur if context is not taken into account E.g. Crying at good news, not feeling afraid in a dangerous situation
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Factors influencing interpretations of emotion Gender Women have reputation of being more emotional Likely that they express emotions more openly than actually experiencing more emotions than men Women more likely to seek help for emotional issues Men conditioned from a young age to hide their emotions Women turn emotions inward (depression) and men outwards (violence) Women in powerful positions expected to regulate, manage and change their emotions
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Cultural Differences Differences in thinking about, interpreting and expressing emotions Facial expressions are universal but may be interpreted differently (e.g. appropriate or inappropriate for a specific situation)
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