The deductive method involves the following three

This preview shows page 6 - 8 out of 8 pages.

The deductive method involves the following three steps: 1. State the hypothesis (based on theory or research literature). 2. Collect data to test the hypothesis. 3. Make decision to accept or reject the hypothesis. The inductive method . This approach also involves three steps: 1. Observe the world. 2. Search for a pattern in what is observed. 3. Make a generalization about what is occurring. Virtually any application of science includes the use of both the deductive and the inductive approaches to the scientific method either in a single study or over time. This idea is demonstrated in Figure 1.1. The inductive method is as “bottom up” method that is especially useful for generating theories and hypotheses; the deductive method is a “top down” method that is especially useful for testing theories and hypotheses.
Image of page 6

Subscribe to view the full document.

Theory The word "theory" most simply means " explanation ." Theories explain "How" and "Why" something operates as it does. Some theories are highly developed and encompass a large terrain (i.e., "big" theories or "grand" theories); others theories are "smaller" theories or briefer explanations. We have summarized the key criteria to use in evaluating a theory in Table 1.4 and reproduced it hear for your convenience. The Principle of Evidence According to the principle of evidence, what is gained in empirical research is evidence , NOT proof. This means that knowledge based on educational research is ultimately tentative. Therefore, please eliminate the word "proof" from your vocabulary when you talk about research results. Empirical research provides evidence; it does not provide proof. Also note that, evidence increases when a finding has been replicated . Hence, you should take NOT draw firm conclusions from a single research study.
Image of page 7
Objectives of Educational Research There are five major objectives of educational research. 1. Exploration . This is done when you are trying to generate ideas about something. 2. Description . This is done when you want to describe the characteristics of something or some phenomenon. 3. Explanation . This is done when you want to show how and why a phenomenon operates as it does. If you are interested in causality, you are usually interested in explanation. 4. Prediction . This is your objective when your primary interest is in making accurate predictions. Note that the advanced sciences make much more accurate predictions than the newer social and behavioral sciences. 5. Influence . This objective is a little different. It involves the application of research results to impact the world. A demonstration program is an example of this. One convenient and useful way to classify research is into exploratory research, descriptive research, explanatory research, predictive research, and demonstration research.
Image of page 8
  • Spring '11
  • Staff
  • Educational research

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern