78%(9)7 out of 9 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 13 pages.
chemical and mechanical irritants, allergens, skin disorders, nerve problems, or vaginal infections, such as candidiasis. Bartholinitis, also called Bartholin cyst, is an inflammation of the ducts that lead from the Bartholin glands to the surface of the vulva. Inflammation blocks the glands, preventing the outflow of glandular secretions, and is caused by trauma or infection. Pelvic organ prolapse—uterine prolapse, cystocele, rectocele, and urethrocele—is caused by lossof support provided by the pelvic muscles and fascia. Age and pelvic trauma are associated. Women with a familial or genetic predisposition have a higher risk.4.Describe disorders such as benign growths and proliferative conditions, cancer, sexual dysfunction, and impaired fertility. (Workbook page 115)Benign growths and proliferative conditions of the female reproductive tract tend to affect the ovaries (benign ovarian cysts) or uterine tissues (endometrial polyps, leiomyomas, and
endometriosis). Benign ovarian cysts develop from mature ovarian follicles that do not release their ova (follicular cysts) or from a corpus luteum that persists abnormally instead of degenerating (corpus luteum cyst). Cysts usually regress spontaneously. Endometrial polyps are overgrowths of endometrial tissue and often cause abnormal bleeding. Leiomyomas, also called uterine fibroids, are tumors arising from the muscle layer of the uterus, the myometrium. Incidence increases in women between ages 30 and 50; most myomas remain small and asymptomatic. Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine myometrium. Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrial tissue (i.e., tissue that responds to hormonal stimulation) at sites outside the uterus. Endometriosis causes an inflammatory reaction at the site of implantation and is a cause of infertility. Most cancers of the female genitalia involve the uterus (particularly the cervix) and the ovaries. Cancer of the vagina is rare. Infection with high-risk HPV, a sexually transmitted infection, is a necessary precursor to developing CIN and cervical cancer. Smoking, immunosuppression, and poor nutrition are cofactors. HPV vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of cervical cancer.Cervical cancer arises from the cervical epithelium. The progressively serious neoplastic alterations are: (1) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cervical dysplasia), (2) cervical carcinoma in situ, and (3) invasive cervical carcinoma. Risk factors for vaginal cancer are in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and prior or concurrent cervical cancer.Like cervical cancers, vaginal cancers arise from the epithelium and are identified as intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia), carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Most are secondary in nature. The major risk for vulvar cancer is a history of HPV infection or squamous dysplasia of the vagina or cervix. Symptoms include chronic vulvar irritation, pruritus, bloody discharge, and a hard, ulcerated area of the vulva or large cauliflower-like lesions. Peak incidence is in postmenopausal women, but younger women can be affected. Endometrial cancer